Moving forward to 2019 and the vaccination campaign is a global, multi-layered beast – fueled by security concerns, religious and political beliefs, preferences for homeopathic approaches, and widespread disinformation.
But there is a problem For around 150 years, the backlash has not been just against vaccination – but against forced vaccination. Increasing populism in Europe and the United States today is part of a new wave of vaccine distrust in the facility, experts say.
Today, this anti-government sentiment "continues to be an important component of the anti-vaccine movement, especially at this time of distrust of the government," said Professor Heidi Larson, director of the Vaccine Confidence Project at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine said CNN.
Larson's Populism and that the anti-vaccine movement was "totally interconnected," adding that it was a "symptom" of "underlying mistrust" in the facility.
"Vaccination is one of the most cost-effective ways to prevent disease – currently preventing 2-3 million deaths each year and avoiding another 1.5 million if immunization worldwide improves," the WHO said.
But delaying vaccines or withholding or refusing to vaccinate despite available vaccines "threatens to reverse advances in combating vaccine-preventable diseases."
This trend is reflected in an increasing number of vaccine groups in the United States and some European countries.
Italy's Inoculum Change
Last August, the populist government of Italy shocked the scientific and medical community after it lifted the compulsory vaccination of schoolchildren.
The ANSA news agency said in June 2018 that the ten compulsory vaccinations – including measles, tetanus and polio – are "useless and dangerous in many cases, if not" harmful."
The law was first published a month earlier introduced the Democratic Party. In an ongoing measles outbreak, 5,004 cases were reported in 2017 – the second highest in Europe after Romania – according to the European Center for Disease Prevention and Control. Italy accounted for 34% of all measles cases reported by countries of the European Economic Area.
"Italy is part of a worldwide mistrust of mediators – doctors and scientists – who can interpret and interpret data," said Andrea Grignolio, who teaches history of medicine and bioethics at La Sapienza University in Rome.
"With the advent of the Internet, people have the illusion that they can access and read data themselves, eliminating the need for technical and scientific knowledge."
Experts say that the origin of the recent anti-vaccine movement in Italy may be attributed to a 2012 court ruling that linked autism and the combined measles, mumps and rubella vaccine. Although this decision was lifted three years later, it contributed to the spread of anti-vaccine theories across the country and around the world.
In the United States, the revival of the vaccine was intensified by the actors Jim Carrey and Jenny McCarthy, who believed that vaccines had contributed to McCarthy's son Autism, and celebrity celebrities such as the former real estate company Mogul and reality TV star Donald Trump.
A report released in October by the CDC showed that the number of vaccines in a number of vaccines remained "overall high and stable". The unvaccinated children under 2 years of age increased from 0.9% for those born in 2011 to 1.3% for those born in 2015. In 2001, only 0.3% of children between 19 and 35 months had received no vaccine doses.
This increase in unvaccinated children was observed worldwide last year based on data from worldwide measles outbreaks the WHO.
The preliminary number of measles cases reported to WHO Headquarters in 183 countries increased by nearly 50% in mid-January 2019 compared to that date in 2018.
Katrina Kretsinger from the WHO vaccine program has steadily declined worldwide by 2016. But since 2017, this number has skyrocketed, she said, noting that rich countries have had high vaccination rates in the past.
"We have lengthy outbreaks that are considerable and that are growing," Kretsinger said at a conference this week. "This is not an isolated problem."
While there are many reasons why parents might choose not to vaccinate their children, the reason why the anti-vaccine movement has spread so much has one common denominator: social media.
The reinforcement of a message
The rise – and diversification – of social media platforms has catapulted anti-vaccination rhetoric into the mainstream.
David R. Curry, Managing Director of The Center for Ethics and Policy on the Vaccine told CNN that vaccine retardation or vaccine initiatives are increasingly able to leverage low-cost, high-impact social media platforms Spread the message.
"We probably see it as the first vehicle "Spreading arguments that are not factual and that are clearly destroying public health," Curry said, noting that social media has allowed the spread of anti-vaccine rhetoric in countries where vaccine confidence has been in the past was high.
"The challenges we face are that we do not have effective countermeasures to address this threat, and we see that as a big problem," he added.
The boundaries between political rhetoric and health concerns often blur in these Facebook groups. And although many of these networks can feel like a small, close-knit community, they are not immune to outside influences.
"One of the things about them was weird that they were trying – or they seemed – to associate vaccines with problems in American discourse, such as racial differences or class disparities that are not traditionally associated with vaccines." Lead author David Broniatowski, on Assistant Professor at the School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, George Washington University.
Now, critics are calling on tech companies like Facebook, YouTube, and Google to take more responsibility for the public health disorders that occur on their platforms, arguing that social media could not deliberately do so ignore the meaningful responsibility for the content of their websites.
"If an affected parent regularly sees information in their newsfeeds that raises doubts about the safety or efficacy of vaccines, it could lead to disregard of their children's doctors 'and health professionals' advice and the recommended vaccination plan will. "Schiff said. "Repeating information, even if it is wrong, can often be confused with accuracy, and exposure to vaccine content through social media can negatively impact users' attitudes to vaccination."
While tech companies are increasingly coming under attack for taking on some of these groups, some individuals most affected by the anti-vaccine movement have resorted to social assistance.
The Ohio teenager, Ethan Lindenberger, grew up thinking that vaccination is not normal and wrote in a popular Reddit posting last November: "My parents think vaccines are a kind of government program."
But he did not contradict his parents. CNN said this week that he wanted to protect others as well as he did others.
"Obviously it scares me a bit, but I will do my best to convince my parents to and hope that this works," he said.
Gianluca Mezzofiore of CNN contributed to this report.