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Home / Health / 150 years ago, parents protested against compulsory vaccination. Some are still angry

150 years ago, parents protested against compulsory vaccination. Some are still angry



Moving forward to 2019 and the vaccination campaign is a global, multi-layered beast – fueled by security concerns, religious and political beliefs, preferences for homeopathic approaches, and widespread disinformation.

But there is a problem For around 150 years, the backlash has not been just against vaccination – but against forced vaccination. Increasing populism in Europe and the United States today is part of a new wave of vaccine distrust in the facility, experts say.

But to the then Vaxxxten came also libertarians who believed in the forced vaccinations offended against their personal liberties.

Today, this anti-government sentiment "continues to be an important component of the anti-vaccine movement, especially at this time of distrust of the government," said Professor Heidi Larson, director of the Vaccine Confidence Project at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine said CNN.

  Measles cases have increased worldwide due to gaps in vaccination coverage, health authorities say

Larson's Populism and that the anti-vaccine movement was "totally interconnected," adding that it was a "symptom" of "underlying mistrust" in the facility.

Vaccine delay is one of the biggest threats to global health to the World Health Organization, according to 2019.

"Vaccination is one of the most cost-effective ways to prevent disease – currently preventing 2-3 million deaths each year and avoiding another 1.5 million if immunization worldwide improves," the WHO said.

But delaying vaccines or withholding or refusing to vaccinate despite available vaccines "threatens to reverse advances in combating vaccine-preventable diseases."

This trend is reflected in an increasing number of vaccine groups in the United States and some European countries.

Italy's Inoculum Change

Last August, the populist government of Italy shocked the scientific and medical community after it lifted the compulsory vaccination of schoolchildren.

TheFivestar Movement of the Land and its Coalition partners provided extreme rights to enforce schooling in 2011 and discouraged school enrollment

The ANSA news agency said in June 2018 that the ten compulsory vaccinations – including measles, tetanus and polio – are "useless and dangerous in many cases, if not" harmful."

  Why me? taly U-turn on compulsory vaccination shocked the scientific community

The law was first published a month earlier introduced the Democratic Party. In an ongoing measles outbreak, 5,004 cases were reported in 2017 – the second highest in Europe after Romania – according to the European Center for Disease Prevention and Control. Italy accounted for 34% of all measles cases reported by countries of the European Economic Area.

"Italy is part of a worldwide mistrust of mediators – doctors and scientists – who can interpret and interpret data," said Andrea Grignolio, who teaches history of medicine and bioethics at La Sapienza University in Rome.

"With the advent of the Internet, people have the illusion that they can access and read data themselves, eliminating the need for technical and scientific knowledge."

Experts say that the origin of the recent anti-vaccine movement in Italy may be attributed to a 2012 court ruling that linked autism and the combined measles, mumps and rubella vaccine. Although this decision was lifted three years later, it contributed to the spread of anti-vaccine theories across the country and around the world.

Exposed "Science"

According to experts, the most modern anti-vaccine movement was revived by a paper published in 1998 in the prestigious Lancet journal of former British physician and researcher Andrew Wakefield. An association between the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine and the development of autism in young children has been suggested.
The allegations have since been debunked, and the Lancet retracted the article 12 years later – the editor called it "completely wrong." But the effects had already shaken vaccine communities on both sides of the Atlantic.

In the United States, the revival of the vaccine was intensified by the actors Jim Carrey and Jenny McCarthy, who believed that vaccines had contributed to McCarthy's son Autism, and celebrity celebrities such as the former real estate company Mogul and reality TV star Donald Trump.

In 2012, Trump weighed in on vaccines on Twitter and said, "Massive combined vaccinations in toddlers are the cause of a sharp rise in autism …"
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Despite numerous scientific studies, the conclusion is that there is no association between vaccines and autism, Trump [1966] tweeted two months later: "Autism rates through the roof – why does the Obama administration do nothing against the autism committed by the doctor."
Since joining the White House President Trump has largely remained silent on vaccines. But this week, Darla Shine, the wife of White House Communications Director Bill Shine, has leaked false anti-Twitter claims. Her tweets came as a massive measles outbreak that hit mostly children across the state of Washington who did not receive vaccines for the disease. So far, more than 100 cases of measles have been diagnosed in ten US states this year, according to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

A report released in October by the CDC showed that the number of vaccines in a number of vaccines remained "overall high and stable". The unvaccinated children under 2 years of age increased from 0.9% for those born in 2011 to 1.3% for those born in 2015. In 2001, only 0.3% of children between 19 and 35 months had received no vaccine doses.

This increase in unvaccinated children was observed worldwide last year based on data from worldwide measles outbreaks the WHO.

The preliminary number of measles cases reported to WHO Headquarters in 183 countries increased by nearly 50% in mid-January 2019 compared to that date in 2018.

In developing and conflict-affected countries, lack of access to the vaccine may be associated with the spread of misinformation about the vaccine in affluent, developed countries, experts say.
  Officials hope to change their mind while

Katrina Kretsinger from the WHO vaccine program has steadily declined worldwide by 2016. But since 2017, this number has skyrocketed, she said, noting that rich countries have had high vaccination rates in the past.

"We have lengthy outbreaks that are considerable and that are growing," Kretsinger said at a conference this week. "This is not an isolated problem."

While there are many reasons why parents might choose not to vaccinate their children, the reason why the anti-vaccine movement has spread so much has one common denominator: social media.

The reinforcement of a message

The rise – and diversification – of social media platforms has catapulted anti-vaccination rhetoric into the mainstream.

David R. Curry, Managing Director of The Center for Ethics and Policy on the Vaccine told CNN that vaccine retardation or vaccine initiatives are increasingly able to leverage low-cost, high-impact social media platforms Spread the message.

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"We probably see it as the first vehicle "Spreading arguments that are not factual and that are clearly destroying public health," Curry said, noting that social media has allowed the spread of anti-vaccine rhetoric in countries where vaccine confidence has been in the past was high.

"The challenges we face are that we do not have effective countermeasures to address this threat, and we see that as a big problem," he added.

In the 2017 newspaper that charted the anti-vaccination movement on Facebook, Australian researchers Naomi Smith and Tim Graham found that the modern anti-vaccine discourse on Facebook "was about moral outrage and structural oppression by the institutional government and the media goes. " strong logic of belief and thinking of "conspiracy".

The boundaries between political rhetoric and health concerns often blur in these Facebook groups. And although many of these networks can feel like a small, close-knit community, they are not immune to outside influences.

  Why Russian Trolls Aroused US Vaccine Debates

Last August, a study published in the American Journal of Public Health suggested Twitter Accounts that camouflage themselves as legitimate users appear to have been operated by automated bots and Russian trolls participating in online vaccine debates. The bots and trolls distributed both pro and anti-vaccine messages with messages from 2014 to 2017, trying to link vaccine issues to other hot button issues in American discourse, the study said.

"One of the things about them was weird that they were trying – or they seemed – to associate vaccines with problems in American discourse, such as racial differences or class disparities that are not traditionally associated with vaccines." Lead author David Broniatowski, on Assistant Professor at the School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, George Washington University.

Withdrawal

Now, critics are calling on tech companies like Facebook, YouTube, and Google to take more responsibility for the public health disorders that occur on their platforms, arguing that social media could not deliberately do so ignore the meaningful responsibility for the content of their websites.

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. This week, US Rep. Adam Schiff sent a letter to Facebook and Google CEOs asking them to solve the problem.

"If an affected parent regularly sees information in their newsfeeds that raises doubts about the safety or efficacy of vaccines, it could lead to disregard of their children's doctors 'and health professionals' advice and the recommended vaccination plan will. "Schiff said. "Repeating information, even if it is wrong, can often be confused with accuracy, and exposure to vaccine content through social media can negatively impact users' attitudes to vaccination."

Schiff added that parents could search for accurate information about vaccines. "unintentionally reach pages and videos with misinformation," cites a Guardian report, which found that searches on Facebook and YouTube have often led to results that provided scientifically inaccurate information. He added that he was concerned about Facebook's practice of accepting paid ads containing deliberate false information about vaccines.
Facebook said on Thursday that it is removing recommendations for vaccines on its website.
Last month, YouTube said that Google's own company had announced it was "damagingly" reducing the recommendations for "borderline content" and videos that could mislead users.

While tech companies are increasingly coming under attack for taking on some of these groups, some individuals most affected by the anti-vaccine movement have resorted to social assistance.

The Ohio teenager, Ethan Lindenberger, grew up thinking that vaccination is not normal and wrote in a popular Reddit posting last November: "My parents think vaccines are a kind of government program."

But he did not contradict his parents. CNN said this week that he wanted to protect others as well as he did others.

When he was 18, Lindenberger turned to Reddit for information about the vaccine. Now that he's vaccinated, his next goal is to change his parents' opinion of his younger siblings.

"Obviously it scares me a bit, but I will do my best to convince my parents to and hope that this works," he said.

Gianluca Mezzofiore of CNN contributed to this report.


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