The moon was just a chin of gold
a night or two ago,
And now she's turning her perfect face
down to the world.
~ Emily Dickinson, 1863  The moon has moved humans for centuries, and the tides of the earth for at least a few million millennia . It is the only celestial body that we have reached and continue on.
Next year, on June 20, 2019, it is 50 years since Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin took a three-hour walk on the Moon as part of Apollo 11 [1
Since then, a series of 5 other missions transported astronauts to the Moon and ended in 1972 with Apollo 17 (mission, which also includes Harrison Schmitt, the first and only scientist on the moon, brought to the moon).
Apollo 17 was not only the final of man Moon landing but the last time humans left the near-earth orbit where o humanized satellites are dancing
After all the years when NASA proposed the introduction of the Orion capsule in 2019, we finally can go back to the moon and study the moon.
And it's not just NASA. Space agencies from countries worldwide have plans to send people to the moon in the coming years.
Keeping people on the moon has not lost its magical quality yet. But after a 46-year-old wait, the field has changed dramatically. A simple walk on the lunar surface is obviously over. And so there are not just one but two missions that outdo others in terms of ambition and scale: the Deep-Space Gateway and the International Lunar Village.
A Gateway to the Moon and Mars
The Deep-Space Gateway (also known as the Lunar Orbital Platform Gateway) is a space station that will orbit the Moon in the early 2030s , subject to approval and funding in 2019.
Led by a team with America's NASA Europe's ESA Russia's Roscosmos Japan's JAXA and China's CSA Deep Space Gateway will serve as a multifunctional base camp for missions to the Moon and as a gateway for future visits to Mars and beyond NASA .
scheduled from the early 2020s, and positioned as a continuation of the International Space Station (19459008) decommissioned in 2024 .
A Village on the Moon
The second ambitious mission in the near future is the International Lunar Village ]a project led by the European Space Agency (ESA) currently still in planning.
In the words of ESA chief Jan Woerner, the village will "combine the skills – be it robots – or humans – of all space-traveling nations."
When completed, the Moon Village becomes a permanent lunar base be on the astronauts can live long time on the moon and work time. It will also act as a hub for research, business, tourism and mining, says Woerner.
There are a lot of investigations regarding the Moon Village . Space nerds from around the world are exploring solutions to the challenges associated with an ambitious project such as a Moon Village.
Among the many things a village needs to build are bricks, concrete, steel, and machinery. Also work and much of it. To carry these from the earth is an option but a very bulky and expensive one.
This was one aspect of ESA research: finding an answer to the annoying problem of material transport from Earth to the Moon.
With what is abundant
The ESA is considering using a material that is abundantly available on the Moon – the Moon itself.
Yes, you read it correctly. They plan to build igloos on the moon and use the mondeigen soil.
Over the course of billions of years, meteorites have crashed small and large repeatedly on the moon (19659019) space radiation and the lack of an atmosphere to absorb this radiation has this broken pieces of the moon brought to light. Over time, the mantle is ground into smaller and smaller pieces, resulting in a layer of fine dust and small stones above the lunar surface.
If you've seen the photograph of Armstrong's bootprint on the moon (the first picture) in this piece, you've probably noticed how fine that dust really is. This is pulverized mantle dust for you, and this loose layer of powder and rock is fantastic enough, called "regolith."
Regolith? Sure, we have some history
Lunar regolith has been on the radar of space scientists for decades.
When the Apollo 11 mission was just a sketch, scientists recorded reporting on the "soft and powdery" surface of the moon and how difficult it could be to land on it.
When Apollo 11 finally arrived there, Neil, Buzz and Michael Collins learned that the regolith was firmly under the lander and perfectly suited to take a walk and hike around. That was the only good thing that applied to her on Sand on the Moon – the rest was a chaotic nightmare.
As soon as they stepped onto the lunar surface, particles stuck to their spacesuits, the interior of their lunar module, soared into their eyes and lungs, causing them to cough – doing enough harm to earn a bad name.
What makes lunar soil particularly abrasive is the lack of weathering lunar rocks due to liquid water and gases in the atmosphere – both makes the sand on earth much nicer to run, curl up.
Lunar Regolith, with its small jagged edges, is known as damaged both space suits and spaceships.
The brick industry
With all its disagreeable properties, the choice of regolith for the construction of lunar bases is still rational
At the beginning, regolith is plentiful; in some highland areas, it should reach depths of up to 15 meters, according to NASA reports. It can be compacted into bricks and fired into solid blocks with good compressive strength.
The bricks are subjected to a thorough mechanical test to determine how durable they are, as some of the bricks showed signs of warping at the edges, since the cooling process after baking does not occur simultaneously throughout the stone.
"We are looking for [into] how to handle this effect by occasionally speeding up the print speed so that less heat builds up inside the brick," ESA materials engineer Advenit Makaya said in a statement .
"But this project is a proof of concept, which shows that such a lunar structure is actually feasible."
With brick walls that were built on a compact, at least two meters thick regolith layer, according to an old study Most space radiations to which an astronaut would be exposed in a suitably enclosed space could be warned much like a tourist wearing an SPF 100 sunscreen.
ESA scientists say that the radiation tests would require new samples from the Moon, not long after they were charged by the radiation.
Making bricks from moon dust is all right and beautiful. But building bricks requires kilns, heat and a lot of work – not things we want to bring to the moon soon.
What the ESA plans against is the power of 3D printing on the moon with concentrated sunlight as a heat source for burning bricks from regolith.
Yes, we are 3D printing in Zero-G
The process of 3D printing was tested and first tested in 2017 in the Zero-G environment of the ISS.
The space station has two 3D printers on board and has reduced reliance on additional help from Mother Earth at best by six hours later on a good day without traffic.
Surprisingly, a fully 3D-printed satellite was launched by Russian astronauts of the ISS in 2017 .
The ESA claims ] that by means of 3D printing, huge telescopes and arrays for solar energy will be built and repaired in the near future, and not just spacecraft for astronauts.
So, astronauts do not have to carry truckloads or spaceships full of bricks and mortar.
Instead, they share a spaceship with a 3D printer that turns lunar soil into normal-looking bricks to build extraordinary things. Stones to build bases, bases to live and work, and one can only hope that there is a plan for a club with Zero-G dance floors there.
Not just another stone in the wall
And behold, it's not all that regolith is built of. It could possibly play a second, more important role in keeping our astronauts alive.
Lunar regolith grains are dense with mineral and chemical compounds. Compounds such as nitrides and oxides that can be converted into very useful things like oxygen, water and fertilizer. These could open doors to make long lunar stays sustainable.
But experiments on the actual moon are difficult and expensive. That's why NASA carried out simulations with regolith mining and harvesting equipment, using a lunar rover called SCARAB here on Earth. There is one region in Hawaii where one finds some kind of soil, known as "Tephra", which resembles regolith or lunar sand.
The NASA bet is that their rover, SCARAB, can mineshing and tweak identical compounds to extract oxygen and other beneficial substances from Tephra on Earth, it may also be likely with regolith on the moon do.
Will Pink Floyd Rethink?
ESA and NASA in a Few Years You could hire bricklayers to print bricks, a team of lunar engineers to plan a lunar crater city, and those with a ticket could use Earth-View cabins for Spaceflix and chill.
From the moon, rocks and sand to bricks, 3D printers and villages, here it is – the ever-changing next frontier in space exploration awaits us.
Pink Floyd was known to sing no stone in the wall. Given the class and hatred of a 3D-printed regolith brick wall on the dark side of the moon, should Gilmour and Waters be asked if they want to rethink it?