The solution to one of the deepest and most persistent puzzles of modern physics could be found in one of Albert Einstein's forgotten theories that the famous physicist had given up almost a century ago.
Dark Energy and Dark Matter Are Invisible Theoretic Substances It is believed that they make up 95 percent of the universe, but their existence is theorized only on the basis of the effects that they seem to have on the normal matter, all of us know. Some of the most sophisticated and delicate instruments ever made by humans have discovered no signs of this material after nearly 50 years of searching.
As described in an article published this week in Astronomy and Astrophysics a theory developed and abandoned by Albert Einstein in 1
This dark liquid, if it exists, has negative mass. In contrast to normal matter, which has a positive gravitational charge or mass (meaning that it attracts other matter), negative mass would repel matter. In short, if you move an object of negative mass away from you, the object would actually move towards you instead of moving in the direction of the applied force, as is the case with ordinary matter. According to Farnes, negative masses would spread as one single substance in the form of dark fluid throughout the universe.
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"The result seems pretty pretty," Farnes said in an article about his theory at The Conversation. "Dark energy and dark matter can be combined into a single substance, both of which can be explained simply as positive mass mass surfing in a sea of negative masses."
The new Farnes theory is elegant and intuitive. After all, as Farnes states in his article, polarization – things that occur in positive and negative forms – is a common feature in the universe. There are positive and negative electrical charges, and even information seems to be polarized as ones and zeros. It would be strange, Farnes argues, if a fundamental property of mass has monopolized positive charges.
The theory of Farnes goes back to a small note that Einstein made to himself in 1918, while trying to explain the cosmological constant, with which Einstein first described the dynamics of the universe, in his equations for general relativity ,
Einstein relied on the cosmological constant to explain how the universe could be static, which was widely accepted at the time, while also considering the effects of gravity. Without this cosmological constant, according to Einstein, the gravitational force of the universe would cause it to collapse. In essence, the cosmological constant was a term that functioned as a kind of gravity. The problem for Einstein was to explain what this cosmological constant was.
In the 1918 note, Einstein described a modification of his general theory of relativity in which "empty space" has the role of negative mass, all distributed over interstellar space, "where the key phrase here was" negative mass ".
The following year, however, Einstein had adopted another interpretation of the cosmological constant, and that little note was lost to history. In 1931, Einstein completely removed the cosmological constant from his general theory of relativity, after Edward Hubble discovered that the universe is not static but expands.
These devastating observational data led Einstein to call his apprehension of the cosmological constant "his greatest mistake." Today, however, Einstein's cosmological constant is rarely considered a mistake by most physicists.
In fact, the cosmological constant is part of the Lambda CDM model, the most widely used cosmological model of the universe. In this model of the universe, the cosmological constant represents the dark energy used to explain the accelerating expansion of the universe.
The Lambda CDM model also contains dark matter to explain the observed galactic rotation. The influence of gravity on the stars at the edge of a galaxy is less than the influence of gravity on the stars in the center of the galaxy. This suggests that the stars at the edge of the galaxy should rotate faster than the inner stars. In fact, galaxies should fly apart due to their own rotational force. Theoretically, dark matter is considered to be the material that keeps galaxies intact and accounts for the observed rotation speed of stars.
But in the last half-century, dozens of dark matter detection experiments have gone empty-handed.
For dark matter, much of the problem is that physicists do not know exactly what they are looking for, as there are a number of leading dark matter particle candidates. With respect to the Dark Energy, which is believed to be a property of outer space, there are a number of different theories ranging from virtual particles that come in or out of existence to a type of field called "quintessence " referred to as. In both cases, physicists have no idea how to recognize the dark energy, and can only make their existence due to the expansion of the universe.
There is, of course, the possibility that Einstein has made gravity completely wrong and we must completely abandon the concept of dark matter and dark energy. While some physicists have developed alternative theories of gravity that make dark matter superfluous, in the scientific community they are generally considered marginal. This is mainly because they usually have to change Einstein's theory of general relativity, which has proved correct in every test of the last century.
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The new theory of Farnes is a radical departure, but if right, this would be our understanding of the fundamentally change the universe.
The first rudimentary models that Farnes developed based on his theory have so far elucidated a handful of observed properties of the galactic rotation and expansion of the universe normally attributed to dark matter and dark energy. This is a promising start, but Farnes said that more observation data from instruments such as the Square Kilometer Array will be needed to push his theory into the mainstream.
"If [my model is] really, the missing 95 percent of the cosmos would have an aesthetic solution: we had forgotten to insert a simple minus sign," Farnes concluded in the conversation.