"Our body loves violence," said John DeWitt, senior biochemist who works as a contractor for NASA and focuses on crew health. "Power helps our muscles get stronger, strength helps our bones stay strong, strength helps the heart to stay strong by pumping the blood against gravity, so if you take that power off, you all suddenly have one […]
After more than 50 years of manned space travel, researchers are aware of some of the risks that exist for the human body in weightlessness. Space sickness occurs in the first 48 hours, causing loss of appetite, dizziness and vomiting.
Over time, astronauts who spend six months at the International Space Station may notice the weakening and loss of bones and atrophic muscles. They also suffer from decreased blood volume, weakened immune systems and cardiovascular deconditioning because swimming costs little strength and the heart does not have to work so hard to pump blood.
Scott Kelly and other astronauts in their late forties and fifties also complained that their eyesight changed slightly. Some needed a pair of glasses in flight.
"You can lose about one percent of bone mass every month, and that's the typical situation in of astronauts, "said astronaut Mark Said Kelly. "Without constant pounding on the ground, you lose bone mass, and if someday we want to send people to Mars, we need to learn to overcome that, if the human body is to stay in space for 10 to 20 minutes." Years, evolutionarily, over a long period of time, we would probably lose our skeleton in space because you do not need it. We would probably only be big sacks of meat.
Exercise was developed as a countermeasure to reducing the amount of bone mass and muscle loss.
"We did not fly people on long-duration missions without practice," said DeWitt. "We built our training suite over time. But in the early Apollo missions, there were no exercises, and one of the things that came back from the Apollo astronauts is: Hey, you have to have some kind of exercise device here. & # 39;
Exercise must be done for every mission lasting more than eight days, said DeWitt.
Scott Kelly spent a year in space, but followed the exercise program and used the machines aboard the space station. Those who return to the Moon and eventually go to Mars need practice abilities on and around their spacecraft, which are still being developed.
"We need to go in a different direction and build smaller devices, more like all-in-one Devices that still have the same capabilities, but at the same time take up much less space, "said DeWitt.
Weight-bearing muscles like the soleus in the calf could lose most of the conditioning.
"After only three weeks in space, human soleus muscle shrinks by a third," said study lead author Marie Mortreux of Harvard Medical School's Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center. "This is associated with a loss of slow-twitch muscle fibers needed for endurance."
Morteux and her colleagues equip rats with straps and from the ceiling of her Cages hung. This was the analog for Marsgravitation in the experiment. The rats were exposed to normal earth gravity or simulated Mars gravity for 14 days. Half had resveratrol in their water supply; Your body weight was affected in any way.
Paw grip force and calf circumference as well as muscles were measured and analyzed. Decreased gravity resulted in loss of grip, muscle weight, calf circumference, and slow-twitch muscle fibers in rats that did not receive resveratrol. However, those receiving the supplemented water recovered again, which was comparable to the control rats with normal soil gravity.
Muscle mass was also protected and the loss of muscle fibers was not so great. The calf circumference and the calf muscle fibers, however, continued to decrease.
"Food strategies could be crucial, especially as astronauts traveling to Mars will not have access to the training equipment used on the ISS," Mortreux said. "Resveratrol has been shown to retain bone and muscle mass in rats during complete discharge [suspension]analogously to weightlessness in space, so we assumed that a moderate daily dose would also help alleviate muscle deconditioning in a Mars gravity analogue . " 19659006] What happens when astronauts get sick in space? "src-mini =" // cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam/assets/170331104342-astronaut-space-walk-small-169.jpg "src-xsmall =" // cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam /assets/170331104342-astronaut-space-walk-medium-plus-169.jpg "src-small =" http://cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam/assets/170331104342-astronaut-space-walk-large- 169.jpg "src-medium =" // cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam/assets/170331104342-astronaut-space-walk-exlarge-169.jpg "src-large =" // cdn.cnn.com/ cnnnext / dam / assets / 170331104342-astronaut-space-walk-super-169.jpg "src-full16x9 =" // cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam/assets/170331104342-astronaut-space-walk-full-169 .jpg "src-mini1x1 =" // cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam/assets/170331104342-astronaut-space-walk-small-11.jpg "data-demand-load =" not-loaded "data-eq -pts = "mini: 0, xsmall: 221, small: 308, medium: 461, large: 781" />