Americans have not significantly changed their consumption of processed meat over the last 18 years, although there is increasing evidence that midday meats, sausages, hot dogs, bacon and other processed meats have been linked to diseases such as colon cancer. The consumption of fish and shellfish did not change either: less than 15% of adults in the US met the recommended intake of 8 ounces per week.
Over the same period, consumption of poultry increased, while consumption of unprocessed red meats – including beef, pork and lamb – showed a downward trend. However, a quarter of American adults still eat more than the recommended weekly limit of 500 grams or less for red meat.
All in all, "almost a quarter (range = 23.4% to 24.5%) of total meat and poultry consumed by US adults between 1
The findings suggest that public health experts should do more to raise public awareness about the health risks associated with processed and red meats and the benefits of eating more fish.
Luxian Zeng, MD, Friedman Faculty of Nutrition Science and Policy, Tufts University, Boston, Massachusetts; Mengyuan Ruan, MS, Faculty of Medicine, Tufts University, Boston; and colleagues report on their findings in an article published today in the Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics .
For example, the nutritional guidelines for Americans for the period 2015-2020 do not state that processed meat is a carcinogen. Although the Guidelines cite a low intake of processed meat as a characteristic of a healthy diet, the authors explain.
Since the survey also found that processed meat was mainly purchased in shops and fast food outlets, "future policy could prioritize it as the primary intervention type," they add
messages about the drawbacks of unprocessed red meat seem Writing that the per capita consumption of red meat declined by 13% between 1999 and 2016, the authors say that "in a recent survey of adults in the US, more than that Half of the participants said they now eat less meat than 3 years ago, who have given cost and health as the two main reasons for reducing meat consumption. "Per capita consumption of poultry increased by 14.1% over the same period.
Similarly, economic factors could contribute to the overall low consumption of seafood as well as the lack of awareness of the health benefits of and concerns about Mercury contamination in certain fish, although scientific evidence suggests that the benefits of fish intake outweigh the potential risks. "
The results are from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a study program designed to provide a representative sample of health care. and nutritional status of adults and children in the United States. This study included data on 43,995 adults, ages 20 years and older, who had completed at least one 24-hour nutritional interview during the nine biennial survey cycles from 1999 to 2000 through 2015.
The surveys included questions on all food and drink consumed by each participant the day before, with measurement guides used to estimate the portion size. Participants were also asked where they bought the food or most ingredients.
Changes in food intake were then calculated as the differences in mean intake between the earliest cycle, which covered the years 1999 to 2000, and the latest. for the years 2015 to 2016 included in the survey.
The average consumption of processed meat was 182 g / week (g / week) from 1999 to 2000 and 187 g / week from 2015 to 2016 (mean change 4.22 g / week). wk; 95% confidence interval [CI] 18.4 to 26.8 g / wk; P for Trend = 0.95). For unprocessed red meats, the average consumption of 340 g / week increased from 1999 to 2000 to 284 g / week from 2015 to 2016 (mean change -56.7 g / week, 95% KI -88.0 to -25.4 g / Week; P for Trend <.001).
Poultry consumption increased during the study period from an average of 256 g / week in 1999 to 2000 to 303 g / week in 2015 to 2016 (mean change 47.0) g / week; 95% CI, 12.0 to 82.0 g / week; P for trend <0.001). However, fish and shellfish consumption remained virtually unchanged, averaging 115 g / week between 1999 and 2000 and 116 g / week between 2015 and 2016 (mean change 1.55 g / week, 95% CI -22.5-25 , 6 g) / week; P for Trend = .14).
Stores accounted for 73.2% of processed meat and 61.6% of unprocessed red meat, 61.5% of poultry and 59.7% of fish and shellfish purchases. Fast food restaurants accounted for 19.2% of total poultry consumption, 16.4% of unprocessed red meat consumption and 12.5% of processed meat consumption. Whilst full service restaurants made up 23%.
Numerous factors can influence food choices, Zhang said in a press release about the study. "However, the lack of awareness of the health risks associated with processed meat may have contributed to the fact that consumption has not changed over the last 18 years."
"Our findings support further public awareness campaigns on the meat-related health risks of high meat consumption in the US," Zhang concludes.
One author reports research grants from the National Institutes of Health and the Gates Foundation. personal fees from GOED, DSM, Nutrition Impact, Pollock Communications, Bunge, Indigo Agriculture, Amarin, Acasti Pharma and America's Test Kitchen; Scientific Advisory Board, Omada Health, Elysium Health and DayTwo; and chapter fees from UpToDate, all outside the submitted work. The other authors have not disclosed any relevant financial relationships.
J Acad Nutr Diet. Published online June 21, 2019. Summary
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