MADRID – In what is touted as the "Century Process in Spain", a dozen politicians and activists are being charged with participating in Catalonia's independence in Catalonia in 2017.
The trial, On Tuesday, the indictment began against the prosecutors, including riots and riots.
It is expected that the process will take at least three months. The result of the trial should not only shed light on the Spanish judiciary, but also set the course for the Catalan secession movement and the tone of national politics for the next few years.
HOW CAN WE HERE?
from the Catalan independence referendum on October 1
Regional President Carles Puigdemont fled Spain with several other regional officials and turned up in Brussels on 31 October in Puigdemont following a detention in Germany when a court refused to send him back to Spain for a rebellion suit.
Nine other separatist leaders who remained in Spain and responded to a court summons were dismissed as pre-trial detainees as a flight risk. Three other defendants were released on bail before the trial.
WHAT ARE THE ORGINS OF CONFLICT?
The trial is the result of a political crisis based on a previous ruling by a Spanish court.
Catalonia is one of the richest regions of Spain and enjoys extensive authority for self-government.
However, the Spanish Constitutional Court ruled in 2010 to knock down parts of a new regional charter, including the preamble that called Catalonia a "nation." The verdict helped the Catalan separatist movement to expand its ranks.
In November 2015, the Catalan separatists passed an application for secessionism, promising to ignore all adverse decisions by the Spanish courts. They triggered Spain's deepest political crisis in decades, less than two years later, by enforcing two laws to enable a declaration of independence on the results of the banned referendum.
Slightly less than half of voters in the region's 7.5 million independence parties.
WHO IS TALKED AND WHAT?
Separatists in court include former Catalan Vice President Oriol Junqueras; The activist became politician Jordi Sanchez, activist Jordi Cuixart and former spokesman for the Catalan regional parliament Carme Forcadell.
The other six men and two women were members of the Catalan regional cabinet. These are Jordi Turull, Raul Romeva, Joaquim Forn, Meritxell Borras, Dolors Bassa, Josep Rull, Carles Mundo and Santi Vila.
Junqueras is charged with rebellion for up to 25 years. Cuixart, Sanchez and Forcadell are 17 years old. Some have the lesser charges of disobedience. Former members of the government face fines if they are found guilty of misusing public funds for holding the referendum.
Rajoy will be one of more than 500 Witnesses to be called.
WHY IS A TEAM OF THE LAWYER?
One of the problems that raises eyebrows in this case is the fact that the up-and-coming far-right political party Vox sits in the prosecutor's office.
Vox acts as a "People's Procuratorate", a peculiarity of Spanish law that allows individuals or corporations to participate in certain criminal cases, even if they were not directly injured by the defendants.
Vox joins the other two prosecutors: the prosecutor and the prosecutor, whose client is the government.
VIOLENCE OR A PEACEFUL PROTEST
A key issue in the process is whether or not the separatists used force in their escape attempt. Without violence, the charge of rebellion will not be maintained.
The prosecutors and Vox will argue that it came to acts of violence when the defendant allegedly condemned demonstrators to discard police cars and prevent police officers from leaving a government building in Barcelona during raids in Barcelona establishing the referendum, and that Police officers were also injured when they collided with voters as they captured some ballot boxes used in the illegal referendum.
The defense will argue that voters were victims of police violence, not attackers.
The central government attorneys, who are also the third prosecutor, decided not to seek an uprising when a new socialist government took power and began a dialogue with the ruling separatist parties of Catalonia.
Instead, the prosecutors try to prove the lesser charge an indictment that does not require violence and incurs lower prison sentences.
COMPLAINT AND GROUNDS
The court cases are public d is televised live. After completing the testimony and arguing the lawyer, it would take several months to disclose judgments and impose judgments.
The court rulings are open to both the defense and the prosecutor. Once exhausted, the defense may lodge a violation of the fundamental rights complaint with the Spanish Constitutional Court, and then the cases can be brought before the European Court of Human Rights.
The national government can also pronounce a pardon. After a conviction and through remorse, an apology must be requested.
Joseph Wilson reported from Barcelona, Spain.