India has released the final version of a list of approximately 1
The National Register of Citizens (NRC) is a list of persons who can prove it. They arrived in the state on March 24, 1971, the day before neighboring Bangladesh declared independence from Pakistan.
People removed from the list have 120 days to appeal against their expulsion.
It's unclear what happens next.  India says the trial is necessary to identify illegal migrants from Bangladesh.
It has already arrested thousands of people suspected of being foreigners in makeshift camps housed in state prisons. 19659007] The trial has also raised criticism of "witch hunts" against Assam's ethnic minorities.
A draft of the list published last year excluded four million people.
What is the Civil Register?
The NRC was founded in 1951 to determine who was born in Assam and for that reason is Indian who could be a migrant from neighboring Bangladesh.
The registry was updated for the first time.
Families in the state had to submit documents to prove their descent and those who can not prove their citizenship as illegal aliens.
Prime Minister Narendra Modi's Hindu Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) has long been protesting against illegal immigration in India, but has made the NRC a priority in recent years.
Why is registration in Assam?
Assam is one of India's most multi-ethnic states. Issues of identity and citizenship have long troubled a large number of people living there.
Bengali and Assamese Hindus are among their inhabitants, as well as a mixture of tribesmen.
One third of the country's 32 million people are Muslims, the second highest number after Kashmir, administered by India. Many of them are descendants of immigrants who settled there under British rule.
Illegal immigration from neighboring Bangladesh, which shares a 4,000 km border with India, has been a problem there for decades. The government said in 2016 that an estimated 20 million illegal immigrants live in India.
Did 1.9 million people become stateless?
Not quite. Residents who are excluded from the list may turn to specially-trained courts called the Foreigners Tribunals, the Supreme Court, and the Supreme Court.
However, a potentially protracted and exhaustive appeal process will result in India's already overburdened courts becoming clogged and poor people who are not on the list having trouble raising money to fight their cases.
If people lose their appeal to higher courts, they may be detained indefinitely.
Some 1,000 people previously reported as foreigners are already housed in six prisons in prisons. Mr Modi's government is also building an exclusive detention center to house 3,000 detainees.
"People whose names are not on the final list are very concerned about the future, one of the reasons is that the foreign tribunal does not have a good reputation and many fear that they will have to go through this process," said Sangeeta Barooah Pisharoty , Author of Assam: The Accord, The Discord, The BBC.
Why were the courts so controversial?
The special courts were first established in 1964 and have since declared more than 100,000 people as foreigners. They regularly identify "dubious voters" or "illegal infiltrators" as foreigners who are to be deported.
However, the workings of the specially-formed foreign tribunals, which have heard the contested cases, have been controversial.
There are more than 200 such courts in Assam today, and their numbers are expected to increase to 1,000 by October. (The majority of these tribunals were established after the reigning Hindu nationalists BJP took office in 2014.)
The courts have been accused of prejudice, and their practices were often opaque and subject to discrepancies.
On the one hand, the burden of proof lies with the accused or the suspected alien.
Second, many families can not produce documents due to a lack of records, illiteracy, or lack of money to file a legal claim.
People were declared as foreigners by courts because the spelling of names and age of voters was different and it was difficult to have credentials certified by the authorities. Amnesty International has described the work of the special courts as "lousy and casual".
Journalist Rohini Mohan analyzed more than 500 judgments of these courts in one district and found that 82% of those in court were declared as foreigners. She also noted that more Muslims than foreigners were declared and 78% of the orders were delivered without hearing the accused. The police said they were "fleeing," but Ms. Mohan found that many of them lived in their villages and did not know they were declared foreigners.
"The foreign tribunal must become more transparent and accountable".
Mohammed Sanaullah, a veteran of the Indian Army, was in an internment camp eleven days in June after being declared a "foreigner." Reason for national indignation.
Both the Civil Registry and the Tribunals have also aroused fears of witch hunts against Assam's ethnic minorities.
Were the minorities selected as targets?
Many say the list has nothing to do with religion. However, activists consider it a target of the Bengali community of the state, many of whom are Muslims.
They also point to the plight of the Rohingya Muslims in neighboring Bangladesh.
However, a significant number of Bengali-speaking Hindus have also been removed from the citizenship list, highlighting local and ethnic tensions within the state.
One of the worst hit communities are the Bengali Hindus Many of them are Muslims in internment camps. This is also the reason why the BJP changed its attitude a few days before the release of the NRC, from recognition as flawed, because the Bengali Hindus are a strong voter base of the BJP, "says Ms. Barooah Pisharoty.
The Human Tragedy
Fear of potential loss of citizenship and imprisonment following exclusion from the list has seen numerous Bengali Hindus and Muslims kill themselves since the Civil Register was updated in 2015.
And by analogy Following the policies of US President Donald Trump to separate undocumented parents and children, families in Assam were similarly battered.
Detainees complained of poor living conditions and overcrowding in prisons.
One detainee told a legal group after his release that he had been taken to a room with a capacity of 40 people but was filled with about 120 people. People who have been declared as foreigners and many inmates suffer from depression. Children were also imprisoned with their parents.
Human rights activist Harsh Mander, who visited two detention centers, spoke of a situation of "grave and widespread human need and suffering".
What happens to people who have been declared as foreigners?
The BJP ruled the state has insisted in the past that illegal Muslim immigrants be deported. Neighboring Bangladesh, however, will definitely not comply.
Many believe that India will eventually spawn the latest cohort of stateless people and spur the specter of a domestic crisis that mirrors that of the Rohingya people who fled Myanmar to Bangladesh
People who have been deprived of Indian citizenship will have access to social assistance or property.
One possibility is that they will be granted a work permit with some basic rights after their release but will not be allowed to vote.
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