The question of how fast the universe expands has been bothering astronomers for almost a century. Different studies provide different answers over and over again ̵
By developing a new method to measure how fast the cosmos is expanding, a team led by UCLA astronomers has taken a step towards solving the debate. The group's research findings are published today in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society .
At the center of the dispute is the Hubble constant, a number that relates the distances from the redshifts of galaxies as it travels through the expanding universe to Earth. Hubble constant estimates are between about 67 and 73 kilometers per second per megaparsek. This means that two points in space at a distance of 1 mph (equivalent to 3.26 million light years) race at a speed between 67 and 73 kilometers away from each other each second.
"The Hubble constant anchors the physical scale of the universe," said Simon Birrer, UCLA's postdoctoral fellow and lead author of the study. Without an exact value for the Hubble constant, astronomers can not accurately determine the size of distant galaxies, the age of the universe, or the expansion history of the cosmos.
Most methods for deriving the Hubble constant have two components: a distance to a light source and redshift of that light source. Searching for a light source that was not used in other scientists' calculations, Birrer and colleagues turned to quasars, radiation fountains driven by huge black holes. For their research, scientists chose a particular subset of quasars – those whose light was bent by the gravitational force of an intervening galaxy that creates two adjacent images of the quasar in the sky.
Two pictures take different paths to earth. When the brightness of the quasar fluctuates, the two images flicker one after the other and not at the same time. The time delay between these two flickers as well as information about the gravitational field of the embedding galaxy can be used to track the journey of the light and to deduce the distances from Earth to the quasar and the foreground galaxy. Knowing the redshifts of quasar and galaxy enabled the scientists to estimate how fast the universe spreads.
The UCLA team had already used the technique as part of H0liCOW's international collaboration to examine quasars with four images of a quasar appearing around a foreground galaxy. However, quadruple images are not nearly as common – double-image quasars are probably five times as common as quad images.
To demonstrate the technique, the team led by UCLA examined a double-imaged quasar called SDSS J1206 + 4332; They relied on data from the Hubble Space Telescope, Gemini and W.M. Keck Observatories and the Cosmological Monitoring of Gravitational Lenses or COSMOGRAIL, a network for the determination of the Hubble constant, managed by the Swiss Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne.
Tommaso Treu, professor of physics and astronomy at UCLA. Emagazine.credit-suisse.com/app/art … = 118 & lang = DE The newspaper 's lead author said the researchers did daily for several years Photographs of the quasar to accurately measure the time delay between images. To obtain the best possible estimate of the Hubble constant, they combined the data collected on this quasar with data previously collected by their H0liCOW collaboration on three quadruple quasars.
"Highly complementary and independent of others," said Treu.
The UCLA-led team estimated the Hubble constant to be about 72.5 kilometers per second per megaparse, a number that is consistent with other researchers in the research. The distance to supernovas – exploding stars in distant galaxies – was used key measurement. However, both estimates are about 8 percent higher than one based on a dim glow of the cosmic microwave background from the entire sky, a relic of 380,000 years after the Big Bang, when light flew freely through space for the first time. 19659005] "If there is actually a difference between these values, it means that the universe is a little bit more complicated," said Treu.
On the other hand, so good faith, it could also be that one measurement – or all three – are wrong.
Researchers are now looking for more quasars to improve the accuracy of their Hubble constant measurement. Treu said one of the key lessons of the new paper is that double-imaged quasars provide scientists with many useful sources of light for their constant Hubble calculations. Currently, however, the UCLA-led team is focusing on 40 quasars with four-exposure images, as they may provide even more useful information than doubly imaged images.
Astronomers measure the extent of the universe and receive references to "new physics" (Update)
S Birrer et al. H0LiCOW – IX. Cosmographic Analysis of the Double-mapped Quasar SDSS 1206 + 4332 and a New Measurement of the Hubble Constant, Monthly Announcements of the Royal Astronomical Society (2019). DOI: 10,1093 / mnras / stz200