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Australian scientists are developing a nasal spray that could stop SARS-CoV-2 infection



As coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continues to wreak havoc around the world, scientists are working to develop an effective drug or vaccine to fight the infection. With more than 33.5 million infected since the pandemic started in December 2019, finding treatment for those infected is crucial to contain their spread.

An Australian biotech company, Ena Respiratory, said in a recent study on animals that a nasal spray it developed could boost the human immune system in fighting the flu and colds and significantly reduce the growth of the coronavirus.

The potential nasal spray can not only treat COVID-1

9 but also prevent it.

The nasal spray

The novel product called INNA-051 is being developed by Ena Respiratory. Laboratory experiments have shown that it reduces virus replication in animal experiments by up to 96 percent. Under the direction of the Deputy Director of Public Health England (PHE), Professor Miles Carroll, the new study described the possible treatment and was published on the open source preprint server bioRxiv*.

As a nasal spray, the body’s natural immune system is supposed to be strengthened to fight colds and flu. It triggers the innate immune system, which is the body’s first line of defense against infection by pathogens. If the drug has boosted the immune system, it has also prevented SARS-CoV-2 infection and replication in the laboratory.

Clinical observations.  (a) Scheme of the experimental setup.  Ferrets received 5.0 × 10 6 pfu / ml SARS-CoV-2 INNA-051 and PBS treatments 4 days and 1 day prior to exposure.  Nasal lavage and throat swabs were collected on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 10 and 12 post-exposure (pc) for all treatment groups and control groups.  Planned culls were carried out for 6/24 ferrets on day 3 pc and 18/24 ferrets on days 12-14 pc.  (B) Temperatures were measured twice daily (approximately 8 hours apart) using implanted temperature / ID chips.  Mean temperatures +/- standard errors of the mean (SEM) are displayed.  Temperature drop after the SARS-CoV-2 challenge

Clinical observations. (a) Scheme of the experimental setup. Ferrets received 5.0 × 10 6 pfu / ml SARS-CoV-2 INNA-051 and PBS treatments 4 days and 1 day prior to exposure. Nasal lavage and throat swabs were collected on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 10 and 12 post-exposure (pc) for all treatment groups and control groups. Planned culls were carried out for 6/24 ferrets on day 3 pc and 18/24 ferrets on days 12-14 pc. (B) Temperatures were measured twice daily (approximately 8 hours apart) using implanted temperature / ID chips. Mean temperatures +/- standard errors of the mean (SEM) are displayed. Temperature drop after the SARS-CoV-2 challenge

has been attributed to sedation. (b) Weight was recorded daily and the percent change in ferret weight prior to treatment was recorded. The mean percentage weight change +/- SEM is displayed.

Clinical observations. (a) Scheme of the experimental setup. Ferrets received 5.0 × 10 6 pfu / ml SARS-CoV-2 INNA-051 and PBS treatments 4 days and 1 day prior to exposure. Nasal lavage and throat swabs were collected on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 10 and 12 post-exposure (pc) for all treatment groups and control groups. Planned culls were performed for 6/24 ferrets on day 3 pc and 18/24 ferrets on days 12-14 pc. (B) Temperatures were measured twice daily (approximately 8 hours apart) using implanted temperature / ID chips. Mean temperatures +/- standard errors of the mean (SEM) are displayed. Temperature drop after the SARS-CoV-2 challenge

has been attributed to sedation. (b) Weight was recorded daily and the percent change in ferret weight prior to treatment was recorded. The mean percentage weight change +/- SEM is displayed.

The study

Respiratory diseases, including those that cause the flu, colds and the coronavirus infection, are a major ongoing global health threat. These viruses have led to pandemic outbreaks and put the lives of those at higher risk, such as those at risk, at risk, such as those at risk. B. from children, older adults and people with weakened immune systems.

The SARS-CoV-2 infection spreads actively worldwide and spreads quickly from one person to another through close contact and breath droplets. One of the biggest threats from the current pandemic is that multiple people infected with the virus are asymptomatic, which means they don’t know they are carrying the virus. As a result, they are called silent spreaders.

The research team at the National Infection Service Public Health England (PHE) wanted to develop the nasal spray to prevent replication of the virus in the nasal area, the most common entry point for the virus.

To test the nasal spray, the team received nasal wash and throat swab samples four days prior to virus exposure. When analyzing viral RNA in nasal lavage samples, the team confirmed infection in all treatment groups, with lower viral RNA levels observed with INNA-051 treatment.

The team found that prophylactic intra-nasal administration of INNA-051 in the SARS-CoV-2 ferret infection model reduced the amount of viral RNA in the nose and decreased the threat.

“The results of our study support the clinical development of a therapy based on prophylactic innate TLR2 / 6 immune activation in URT to reduce SARS-CoV-2 transmission and provide protection against COVID-19,” wrote that Team in the article.

In addition, the research team added that the prophylactic approach is important for people who are at high risk of transmitting or developing the serious illness from COVID-19 in the community, such as older adults, people with comorbidities, and those with compromised immune systems .

“We were amazed at how effective our treatment was. By strengthening the ferrets’ natural immune response with our treatment, we were able to determine a rapid eradication of the virus, ”said Christophe Demaison, CEO of Ena Respiratory.

“When people react similarly, the treatment has two advantages. People exposed to the virus would most likely get rid of it quickly, with treatment ensuring that the disease does not progress beyond mild symptoms. This is particularly relevant for vulnerable members of the community. In addition, because of the quickness of this response, the infected individuals are unlikely to pass it on, which means that community transmission will stop quickly, ”he added. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AVkjoDG1ZVg

* Important NOTE

bioRxiv

publishes preliminary scientific reports that are not peer-reviewed and should therefore not be considered conclusive, guide clinical practice / health-related behavior, or are treated as established information. Source: Journal Reference:


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