According to new research, bacteria go much faster than scientists had ever expected.
Between 45,000 and 95,000 bacterial species disappeared in the past millions of years – contrary to the widespread theory that they rarely die, she found.
But despite the large numbers, bacteria remain resistant to mass extinctions that have hit larger organisms such as dinosaurs, researchers found.
Scientists used groundbreaking techniques to show that there are between 1.4 and 1.9 million bacterial lines used for categorization
They studied the mathematical structures of DNA to be the first evolutionary tree for bacteria to create ̵
Study Director Postdoctoral Fellow Stilianos Louca from the University of British Columbia said evolutionary and extinction patterns of bacteria can uncover the "new ways" that simple organisms survive.
He stated, "For over 3.5G years (3.5 billion years), the geochemical composition of our planet has been shaped by the evolution and diversification of bacteria." Most importantly, the major oxygenation event occurred about 2 years ago , Was caused by cyanobacteria for 35 years and the Earth's surface environment and the Earth's surface dramatically changed the subsequent evolution of life.
"Despite the prominent role of bacteria in ancient and modern biospheres, little is known about the dynamics that have developed their diversity across the Earth's history."
He added, "Bacteria rarely fossilize, so we know very little about how the microbial landscape evolved over time." 19659011] "Sequencing and math helped us, the capture the bacterial pedigree, map its temporal diversification and uncover its extinction.
"While modern bacterial diversity is undoubtedly high, it is but a small snapshot of the diversity that evolution has produced in Earth's history."
Despite the f, they found that the bacteria could diversify exponentially without interruption.
And they avoid the abrupt, planet-wide mass extinctions that occurred periodically in plants and animals.
Researchers suspect competition between bacterial species driving the high rate of microbial eradication, making them less susceptible to sudden mass extinction.
Former speciation, which is the formation of new species, and extinction events leave a complex trail in phylogenies – the mathematical structures that encode evolutionary kinship between existing bacterial species.
Scientists used supercomputers to study this code to reveal how bacteria evolved and evolved.
Co-author Professor dr. Michael Doebeli, zoologist and mathematician, said: "This study would not have been possible ten years ago."
"Today's Availability of Massive Sequence Data and Performance Comprehensive computing resources enabled us to perform the complex mathematical analysis.
The researchers were challenged to consider the large number of undiscovered bacterial species involved in building the tree.
They used sequencing data from 60 studies in English: bio-pro.de/en/region/stern/magazine/ … 2 / index.html Dr. Louca added, "Our results indicate that during the last 1Gyr [one billion years] the global speciation and extinction rate of bacteria has not been significantly affected during the last years mass extinction events in eukaryotic recordings  "This conclusion does not support previous speculation that the extinction of plant and animal-associated bacteria – resulting in the extinction of their hosts – can contribute significantly to the extinction rates of bacteria."
Eukaryotic cells are those of animals, plants and fungi.
He concluded: "Our analysis sheds light on bacterial diversifiers
" We found evidence that global bacterial diversity has generally increased in the last 1yr-years, with overall species and extinction rates averaging across all clades change in about constant or only slowly.
The inference affects how life unfolded over Earth's history, as bacteria are the oldest and most prevalent form of life on Earth.
"We estimate that global bacterial extinction rates are only slightly below their speciation rates and that only a small fraction of bacterial lines that ever existed survived until today."
"This has important implications for the interpretation of records of the
Scientists are now planning to investigate how physiological properties of bacteria evolve over time 19659002] They hope to find out if their ecological diversity has increased much like their taxonomic diversity.
The study appears in nature ecology and evolution.
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