Eating more fiber found in whole grain cereals, pasta and bread, as well as nuts and legumes, will reduce the likelihood of heart disease and premature death, according to a milestone commissioned by the World Health Organization.
The authors of the study, which will include future WHO guidelines, says their findings are good news – but are incompatible with modern low-carb diets.
The research, chaired by Prof. Jim Mann's team at the University of Otago, New Zealand, which is also present, carried out the comprehensive review that underpinned the WHO Guidelines on controlling dietary sugar and led to worldwide sugar taxes.
Sugar is a "bad" carbohydrate, but fiber is found in "good" carbohydrates like wholemeal bread and oatmeal. However, the overwhelming response to sugar has led to popular diets that reject carbohydrates, including the fibrous strain that scientists say can save lives.
Mann told the Guardian research "contributes significantly to the debate. Here we have very good evidence that a high-fiber diet, which is at least high in carbohydrates for the majority of people, has a tremendous protective effect – a variety of diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer benefit from a high-calorie diet carbohydrate content. "
But he said it would not end the" diet wars "because so many stakeholders were involved. "It's two-fold. There is a commercial interest, which is very large of cooks and top chefs etc. And there is also the professional interest. "That included a few doctors and scientists.
The report found that we should eat at least 25g to 29g of fiber per day, suggesting that over 30g is even better. Most people in the world reach less than 20 g.
Among those who consumed the most fiber, the analysis showed a 15-30% reduction in deaths for all reasons, as well as those of the heart, compared to those who consumed the diet.
Coronary heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes and colon cancer were reduced by 16-24%. The results mean thirteen fewer deaths and six cases of coronary heart disease per 1,000 people eating high-fiber foods compared to those who do not.
Minimally processed fibrous foods can also help you lose weight. "The randomized controlled trials that increased the intake of whole grains showed a reduction in body weight and cholesterol," says the Lancet Medical Journal.
"High-fiber diet that needs to be chewed and contains most of its food The structure in the gut increases satiety and helps control weight, and can positively affect lipid and glucose levels," Mann said.
It was very difficult Having high fiber intake on a low-carbohydrate diet if you did not take any fiber supplements, Mann said, and "there's not much evidence we're talking about," because dietary supplements are beneficial, he added, adding, " it's pretty much impossible to get enough fiber from just fruits and vegetables.
John Cummings, emeritus professor of experimental gastroenterology at the University of Dundee, one of the authors, said the study was of great importance and the conclusions should not be considered "just a fad."
"This is the end of 50 years of fiber research. It's a crucial moment, "he said. The research brings together population epidemiological studies and feeding studies, and he said, "We now know that fiber causes things in the body that give us a credible explanation of how it works."
"We need to get this carved in stone and a part of people's lives. "
The review found limited evidence that low glycemic index diets with low glycemic load protect people from stroke and type 2 diabetes. Glycemic load is a measure of how much a food raises blood sugar levels after eating. Low GI foods can also contain sugars, saturated fats, and sodium, the researchers say, making the compound less clear.
The researchers studied 185 observational studies with data covering 135 million person-years and 58 clinical studies involving 4,635 adults. With each 8g / day increase in fiber intake, overall deaths and incidence of coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes and colon cancer decreased by 5 to 27%. The protection against stroke and breast cancer also increased.
Commenting on the Lancet, Prof. Gary Frost of Imperial College London said the analysis "provides compelling evidence that dietary fiber and whole grains are the key drivers of many health outcomes and should form part of public health policy. "
But only 9% of the UK population eat the high-fiber diets described in the paper, and" the public health institutions face significant population-level challenges. " Other scientists supported the results and said the public should eat more fiber. "It is worrying that fiber consumption in the UK is significantly lower on average than [30g a day]." It is also worrying that otherwise healthy consumers trying popular, low-carbohydrate diets Dr. Ian Johnson, Emeritus Associate at Quadram Institute Bioscience, said, "Prof Nita Forouhi from Cambridge University's MRC Department of Epidemiology said," It will be very hard to maintain a healthy amount of fiber. "
the findings "imply that, although in the population In general, all dietary regimes that recommend very low carbohydrate diets should take into account the opportunity cost of losing fiber from wholegrain kernels. " 19659002] When it came to carbohydrates, she said, "Beyond the quantum discussion, quality is very important. Whole grain foods are usually high in fiber, and this research provides further evidence to highlight their importance and support a shift in our diet from processed and refined foods in the food supply chain to more fiber-rich whole grain foods. "