The complexity of cancer and other diseases requires more arsenal of therapies than what is currently available. Most therapeutic approaches ignore the dynamic molecular network of genes and target only very few selected disease-related genes.
A New Tel Aviver University Study in Nature Nanotechnology proposes a novel approach to the manipulation of genes that provides nucleic acids such as small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) to specific subgroups of cells. While the current practice of precision medicine attacks a single cellular receptor, the new modular platform offers a better biological approach that could be key to the future of personalized medicine, said Prof. Dan Peer of the Precision Nanomedicine Laboratory at the School of Molecular Cell biology and biotechnology, which led the research.
Researchers are currently interested in driving a proof-of-concept in humans.
"The siRNA transporters engineered today target specific cells and require chemical conjugation from the targeting agent," Peer said. "The new platform is based on biological affinity, a self-organizing approach that can be applied to an infinite number of diseases and conditions."
The research for the study was written by the first coauthors. Ranit Kedmi and Nuphar performed Veiga and colleagues in Peer's lab, with others from TAU Veterinary Service Center and Boston.
The new platform "eliminates many of the hurdles" plague today precision medicine, said Peer. At the heart of the delivery platform is the "linker", a lipoprotein that binds to the common region of the antibody. Since all antibodies of the same family share a common region, a facile change in antibody results in a novel delivery vehicle that adapts to the target receptor of choice.
"Since its construction relies on affinity interactions, it is not necessary to introduce chemical conjugation optimizations for the method's operation," noted Peer. "Linkers stick in the nanoparticle membrane and bind to a solid region of any antibody of the same isotype, allowing for safe passage to a theoretically unlimited selection of carriers targeting different cell surface receptors."
"We believe that this modular delivery platform will Milestone is making precision medicine really doable, "added Veiga.
The scientists used the platform to attack colonic macrophages to reduce the inflammatory symptoms caused by inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in mouse models. The mice showed far less inflammation, indicating the possibility of promising new IBD treatment options, Peer said.
"Our delivery platform can be adapted for each patient to address a potentially infinite number of receptors, and it is flexible enough to be easily adapted to target any cell subgroup and knock down any gene of choice believe it has tremendous research and therapeutic potential. "
Omega 3 from fish for cancer prevention
Omega 3 from fish delivers a stronger punch than flaxseed and other oils when it comes to cancer goes to a first study at the University of Guelph in Ontario, Canada. Human and nutritional science Prof. David Ma has found that marine-based omega-3 is eight times more effective at inhibiting tumor development and tumor growth.
"This study is the first to compare the anticancer potency of plant origin compared to marine omega 3 on breast tumor development," Ma said. "There is evidence that both Omega 3 from plants and marine sources protect against cancer, and we wanted to find out which form is more effective."
There are three types of omega-3 fatty acids: a-linolenic acid (ALA) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Plant-based ALA is found in edible seeds such as flaxseed and in oils such as soy, canola and hemp oil. EPA and DHA are found in marine life, such as fish, algae and phytoplankton
In the Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, researchers fed the various omega-3 species to mice that had a very aggressive form of human breast cancer HER-2. This form affects a quarter of women with breast cancer, which gives patients a poor prognosis.
"The mice were exposed to the various types of omega-3 before the onset of tumors, which allowed us to compare how effective the fatty acids are in prevention," he explained. "It is well known that EPA and DHA can inhibit the growth of breast tumors, but no one has directly investigated how effective these different types of omega-3s are in comparison to ALA."
Ma found that the total burden of omega-3 was reduced on a sea-scale tumor size by 60% to 70% and the number of tumors by 30%.
However, higher doses of the plant fatty acid had to achieve the same effect as the omega 3 marine-based fight cancer by turning on genes linked to the immune system and blocking tumor growth pathways, Ma said.
"It seems that EPA and DHA are more effective in this respect, as we do not get enough omega-3 fatty acids from seafood in North America, so there is a way to improve our diet and prevent the risk of breast cancer." [1
In addition to certain foods containing EPA and DHA, dietary supplements and functional foods such as omega-3 eggs or DHA milk may provide similar cancer-preventive effects. The next step is to investigate the effects of omega-3 on other forms of breast cancer.