MEPs voted by a majority vote to force the Prime Minister to call for an extension of the Brexit process to avoid a no-deal scenario.
The bill submitted by Labor's Yvette Cooper was passed by the Commons in just one day.
However, it must be approved by the Lords before it becomes law. It would still be up to the EU to decide whether to grant an extension.
The vote will take place after Theresa May has met Jeremy Corbyn for talks on Brexit.
The discussions between the leaders trying to reach an agreement were called "constructive", but Mr. Corbyn added that they were "inconclusive".
Teams from both parties met Wednesday evening, a full day of talks on Thursday, to see if they could agree on a Brexit plan to vote before an EU summit on 1
If this is not the case, the Prime Minister has promised to put a number of options to the vote – including the agreement she has negotiated with the EU, which has already been rejected three times by MEPs.
Mrs Cooper's attempts to prevent a departure from the EU against Tory Brexiteers were negative.
They expressed their frustration with the extremely unusual process of drafting legislation – the first stage of passing a law – that completed all levels of jurisdiction in a matter of hours instead of months.
One, Peter Bone, urged spokesman John Bercow to "bring that farce to a halt" and prevent further votes.
The bill, however, could be subject to further consideration in the Lords already on Thursday.