Cardiologists warn of the dangers of e-cigarettes, especially for young people. New research shows what damage they cause to the brain, heart, blood vessels and lungs.
The study, published today in European Heart Journal also identifies some of the mechanisms involved, for which limited information is available so far.
Professor Thomas Münzel from The Department of Cardiology at the Mainz University Hospital in Mainz, who led the study, said e-cigarettes are so dangerous and addictive that countries should consider banning measures that countries like India, Brazil, Singapore, Mexico and Thailand have already met.
"We need to focus on the youth, because this is by far the biggest market," he said. "According to US Centers for Disease Control and Control, more than 3.6 million US children use e-cigarettes, an increase of 78% from 1
Prof. Münzel said governments should prevent young people from having access to tobacco products, tax them heavily, and restrict the marketing of tobacco products. "We can not allow a generation to become addicted to nicotine," he said.
Prof. Münzel and his colleagues examined the effect In 20 healthy smokers, the blood flow in the brachial artery in the upper arm was influenced by the evaporation of the e-cigarette and then 15 minutes after the e-cigarette had evaporated. They also measured how stiff the artery became.
In addition, they exposed cigarette smoke to sixteen minutes on six, one, three, or five days for twenty minutes a day.
They found that only a single vaping episode increased heart rate and caused the arteries to stiffen and the inner lining of the arteries, the endothelium, no longer functioned properly in smokers. The endothelium is responsible for maintaining the correct dilation and narrowing of blood vessels, protects the tissue from toxic substances and regulates inflammation and blood clotting processes. Endothelial dysfunction is involved in the development of cardiovascular diseases.
The results of the mice showed that an enzyme called NOX-2 was responsible for the damage to blood vessels, including those in the lungs and brain, as a result of an e-cigarette's vapor. NOX-2 is involved in defending the body against bacteria and a process known as oxidative stress – an imbalance between free radicals and antioxidants in the body. Mice that were unable to produce NOX-2 were protected from the damaging effects of steaming.
The researchers also found that mice treated with macitentan (a drug used to treat endothelial dysfunction) increased blood pressure in the vessels and lungs and oxidative stress) or bepridil (used to treat oxidative stress and cell death at high levels) Blood pressure, angina or chest pain) showed no signs of endothelial dysfunction, oxidative stress or inflammation. The beneficial effects of these drugs suggest a key role of a chemical called endothelin 1, which participates in the narrowing of the arteries, as well as a protein called FOXO-3, which protects against oxidative stress.
Prof. Münzel said: The results of the present studies identified several molecular mechanisms by which e-cigarettes can damage blood vessels, lungs, heart and brain. This is a result of toxic chemicals that are produced by the steam process and may also be present to a lesser extent concentrations in the liquid itself. Importantly, we have identified an enzyme, NOX-2, that has all the effects of e-cigarettes on the brain and cardiovascular system mediates e-cigarettes are vaporized, the harmful effects of NOX-2 are activated. The beneficial effects of macitentan and bepridil indicate that e-cigarettes have the ability to trigger blood vessel constriction and in pairing the antioxidant and survival systems of our cells.
"Our data may suggest that e-cigarettes are not a healthy alternative to traditional cigarettes and that their perceived" safety "is not guaranteed, and we have no experience with the health side effects of e-cigarettes The e-cigarette epidemic in the US and Europe, especially in our youth, is causing a large generation of nicotine-addicted people at risk of encouraging them to switch from traditional cigarettes to e-cigarettes how ours should be used as a warning of their dangers, and that aggressive measures should be taken to protect our children against health risks from e-cigarettes. "
One limitation of the study was that no healthy nonsmokers were included. However, the researchers point out that one strength is that they have not received funding from the e-cigarette industry. "Recent studies show that financing the e-cigarette industry is more likely to produce results that indicate that e-cigarettes are harmless." Write the researchers in their work.
Study: E-cigarettes can endanger the heart's health than tobacco
Marin Kuntic et al., Short-Term Vapor Exposure of E-Cigarettes Causes Vascular Oxidative Stress and Dysfunction: Evidence of a Close Correlation with Brain Damage and a Key Role of Phagocytic NADPH Oxidase (NOX-2), European Heart Journal ( 2019). DOI: 10.1093 / eurheartj / ehz772
Cardiologists Find Out How E-cigarettes Harm Brain, Blood Vessels, and Lungs (2019, Nov. 13)
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