Since January, China's Chang'e-4 mission – an orbiter and a rover – has been exploring the other side of the moon, notably the coveted South Pole Aitken Basin, an asteroid impact crater that spans nearly a quarter of the Moon Moon extends the lunar surface. It is the largest crater on the moon as well as the deepest and oldest. Scientists have long suspected that Aitken has important clues to the evolution of the moon and many other bodies of the solar system.
Now, the Yutu-2 rover of the Chang's e-4 mission, which still travels across the Aitken Basin, has finally discovered moon debris, from which researchers believe it is deep in the lunar mantle beneath the lighter Surface material is created. Meteor impacts in the already thin crust of the Aitken Basin may have dug up this material, which is quite different from the surface rocks and regoliths that have studied most of the lunar missions. And when they study these minerals, scientists say they now have a better idea of how our moon has formed and evolved.
The moon formed at the beginning of the history of our solar system, when the Earth bounced off a Mars-sized planet called Theia. And as with many large bodies of the solar system, the researchers think that when the moon was still very young, the moon was covered with a magma ocean. As the moon cooled, the heavier materials sank towards the lunar nucleus, while the lighter material floated up, where they remained as the lunar surface we see today. In between there is a middle layer called a mantle. And unlike Earth, with its volcanoes and plate tectonics and deep ocean cracks, the moon has not shuffled its layers much. The only way to bring the heavier materials to the surface is probably through meteorite impacts that were hard enough to break through the surface layers to the deeper mantle below ̵