The health effects of climate change will be unevenly distributed and children will be particularly vulnerable, according to a new report by the medical journal The Lancet.
The report compared the effects on human health from two perspectives: one of which fulfills the obligations set forth in the Paris Agreement and carries out emission reductions so that global temperature rises by End of the century "well below 2 degrees Celsius" remain In the report released Wednesday, it was found that failure to comply with emission limits would lead to health problems caused by infectious diseases, deterioration of air pollution, rising temperatures and air pollution malnutrition.
"Fossil fuel climate change and air pollution, driving it endangers the health of the child from the womb and accumulates only from there.
Children are particularly at risk because of their physiology.
"Their hearts beat faster than adults and their respiratory rates are higher than those of adults," said . Mona Sarfaty the director of the Climate and Health Program at Center for Communication on Climate Change at George Mason University, which was not involved in the report.
As a result, children have more air pollution than adults in the same situation due to their height .
But nations stop emissions According to the report, in 2016 alone, seven million people will die worldwide. The burning of fossil fuels such as coal and gas also releases a type of fine air pollution called PM 2.5, which can damage the heart and lung when inhaled. Air pollution with PM 2.5 is associated with health problems such as low birth weight and chronic respiratory conditions such as asthma.
In addition to the emissions associated with burning fossil fuels, the report states that future generations would face a growing source of particulate matter pollution: forest fires.
As Temperatures are rising, forest fires are increasing in part because hotter temperatures drain vegetation and facilitate inflammation. The smoke, like the smoke from burning fossil fuels, has a negative impact on health.
According to the report, since the middle of this decade, the number of people exposed to devastating smoke has risen by 77 percent . Much of this growth was recorded in India and China. The Californian Forest Fire Season 2018 as the campfire became the deadliest and most destructive fire of the state in terms of burnt mornings, and this year's forest fire season make it clear that it is also propagated in the United States comes to forest fires.
Throughout the western United States, the proliferation of massive forest fires has worsened air pollution to the extent that has eliminated some of the Air Quality gains from the Clean Air Act.
in fact be challenged for life, "said Gina McCarthy, a former administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency. " There are mental health problems as a result of these climate events, and fires and floods that children have never experienced before, and certainly not in the frequency and intensity with which they are now confronted."
The report states that there are many links between climate change and mental health, including the loss of property and loss of livelihoods, but the impacts would not be quantified.
Part of the exposure exposure that children face is simply that they spend more time outdoors than adults. In combination with their different physiology, they are more susceptible to particulate pollution. The same factors also mean that they are more likely to suffer from the effects of extreme heat associated with climate change. In this decade, eight of the ten hottest years have passed.
The European heatwaves in 2003 led to the death of 70,000 people. "We know that climate change had its fingerprints there and that's worrying," said Dr. Nick Watts, editor-in-chief of the report, adding that subsequent heat waves have "claimed tens of thousands of deaths". 19659002] While many of these people were older, young people also suffered.
As the heat waves get worse, parents and coaches may not realize that the children are more exposed and therefore more vulnerable. Said Dr. Sarfaty.
This is the third time that The Lancet has examined the health effects of climate change but for the first time with a focus on children . "It was our negative view that health costs were enormous and underestimated. On a positive note, however, there are benefits for the population and the economy for cleaner and safer cities and a healthier diet, as health comes first in our response to the climate, "Dr. Richard Horton, editor-in-chief of The Lancet, said.
For this purpose, the report contains a glimmer of hope. The carbon intensity or how much energy greenhouse gas can be generated for each released unit has increased. And more and more cities are presenting climate analyzes that list solutions that can be implemented. However, these measures are taking place against the background of greenhouse gas emissions, which continue to increase. A child born today will live on average until 2090, Dr. Watts and noted that without changes in greenhouse gas emissions, the planet could warm up 4 degrees by then. " W we roughly know what that looks like from a climatic point of view," he said. "We have no idea what that looks like from a public health perspective, but we know it's catastrophic."
The report and its focus on children comes at a time as demonstrations of youth climate, including school protests led by Greta Thunberg, the Sunrise Movement and Extinction Rebellion, attract attention.
The history of the United States that there are children who are wondering if they will have a future, if they should have children, because climate change could get worse and worse. "M s. McCarthy said:
This year, Jamie Margolin, the 17-year-old founder of the environmental activist group Zero Hour before the congress, said: "All who will come to me for this testimony have it Said such a brilliant future before m e will lie to me, "she said. "It does not matter how talented we are, how much work we invest, how many dreams we have, the reality is, my generation is dedicated to a planet that collapses."