Dr. Bernard Fisher was a surgeon whose research revolutionized the treatment of breast cancer. Prior to Fisher's clinical trials in the 1950s-1970s, early-stage breast cancer was usually treated by a radical mastectomy in which the breast, lymph nodes, chest muscle, and often ribs were removed. Fisher proved that less invasive lumpectomy followed by radiation was at least as effective as radical mastectomy, often even more effective. Patients tended to lead a longer life with their treatments, and their body was not weakened by radical surgery. His method eventually became the standard for treatment and his research changed the treatment of breast cancer more than fundamentally. The concept of the clinical trial was new when he started his research, and his successful application of the research method helped legitimize it in the medical community. Fisher later proved that the drug Tamoxifen can prevent breast cancer in women at risk.
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Died: 16. October 2019 (Who else died on October 16?)
Death information: Died in Pittsburgh at the age of 101.
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Departure to the Medical Community: When Fisher first recommended a less invasive breast cancer treatment, his oncologist colleagues did not consider his findings. In fact, they thought his research was ridiculous and wrong. The treatment that Fisher suggested seemed to be completely inadequate, and his belief in how cancer spread was completely different from the standard at the time. Many surgeons did not allow their patients to participate in Fisher's clinical trials. But when his research showed positive results, it finally found its way into the mainstream, and in 1979 his method was the first choice. When Fisher came across resistance from the medical community, he found champions in the women's rights movement. His focus on women's health was unusual and appreciated.
Controversy: Fischer's research was controversial in the 1990s, when it turned out that one of the surgeons involved in his clinical trial had submitted fake data. Fisher was accused of dragging his feet and not making corrections in scientific journals until his findings were published. Finally, at a congressional hearing, Fisher was released from any wrongdoing.
Notable Quote: "I discovered how little information was available about the biology of breast cancer and how little interest existed in understanding the disease."  What People Told About Him: "Historical Examples for the successful transformation of medical paradigms that were once widely used as consensus? Since the Second World War, Bernard Fisher may have been the only one who has made it. The patron of what evidence-based medicine should be. "- Author Gary Taubes
-" He risked everything to change the medical dogma when the establishment said he was wrong. In the end, the data will win. Thank you, dr. Fisher. "- Faustman Lab at Massachusetts General Hospital
" He was the most hated surgeon in human history; his colleagues came to the Cancer Institute and verbally abused him. I sometimes wonder how he survived. What impressed me was that he was a tough guy. "- Dr. Vincent T. DeVita, Jr., Former Director of the National Cancer Institute
Complete Obituary: The New York Times