قالب وردپرس درنا توس
Home / Science / Einstein was (again) right! General Theory of Relativity passes another test

Einstein was (again) right! General Theory of Relativity passes another test



By analyzing the Giant's extraordinarily strong gravitational force Black Hole in the center of the Milky Way on a star nearby, astronomers have shown that Einstein's notions of space and time are still considered the best description of the mode of action of gravity.

According to Einstein's Theory of General Theory of Relativity gravity is the result of how mass deforms space and time. The larger the mass of an object, the stronger its appeal.

Scientists have largely tested the predictions of general relativity in relatively weak gravitational fields such as those on Earth and in the solar system. In the presence of much stronger gravitational fields ̵

1; such as those of the supermassive black holes that are believed to lurk in the hearts of virtually all major galaxies – researchers may discover violations of general relativity that could lead to new theories that could help Explaining Cosmic Mysteries Such As Dark Matter And Dark Energy .

"Einstein's right, at least for the time being," said Andrea Ghez, co-principal author of the research and astronomy professor at the University of California at Los Angeles Testimony. "His observations are in line with Einstein's theory of general relativity, but his theory definitely shows vulnerability, it can not fully explain gravity in a black hole, and eventually we need to move beyond Einstein's theory to a more comprehensive theory of gravitation that explains what a black hole is .

Related: Pictures: Black Holes of the Universe

In the new study, astronomers often examined the supermassive black hole Sagittarius A * as Sgr A * abbreviated. This giant, located at the core of the Milky Way, is about four million times the mass of the Sun and has a diameter of about 23.6 million kilometers.

The scientists observed the star S0-2 in 2018 when he emerged his closest approach to Sagittarius A * during his 16-year orbit. The star approached 120 astronomical units (AU) from the black hole – an AU is the average distance between Earth and Sun, about 93 million miles (150 million kilometers) – and moved at a speed of 2.7% of the speed of light.

With the Keck Observatory, the Gemini Observatory and the Subaru Telescope in Hawaii, astronomers were able to track the full orbit of S0-2 in 3D. They combined this data with measurements from the last 24 years.

The researchers studied a prediction of the general theory of relativity, known as "gravitational redshift," in which gravity can distort light. Just as an ambulance siren for humans sounds higher and lower as the vehicle approaches them, light falling on a gravitational field is shifted to the blue end of the spectrum, while light exiting a gravitational field is reddened or redshifted.

"These measurements signal the beginning of an era in which we can finally test the nature of gravity by orbiting the stars around the supermassive black hole at the center of our galaxy," said study leader Tuan Do, an astrophysicist at the University of California Los Angeles, opposite Space.com.

"Theoretically, this was anticipated for a long time, but it's really exciting that we can finally make it," Do added. "This is a milestone on the way to future, more powerful tests of general relativity and other theories of gravity."

  Image of the orbits of stars around the supermassive black hole in the center of our galaxy. Highlighted is the orbit of S0-2, the first star to have enough measurements to test Einstein's theory of general relativity around a supermassive black hole.

Image of the orbits of stars around the supermassive black hole in the center of our galaxy. Highlighted is the orbit of S0-2, the first star to have enough measurements to test Einstein's theory of general relativity around a supermassive black hole.

[Picture credits: Keck / UCLA Galactic Center Group]

The spectrum of light detected by S0-2 revealed the redshift that it had experienced by the extreme gravity of Sagittarius A *, consistent with general relativity. It was "amazing" to see the predictions of General Relativity "work, although black holes, much less supermassive black holes, were not even known when Einstein developed his theory," Do said.

2 is the first of many Studies on the general theory of relativity, which the scientists want to perform on stars near Sagittarius A *. One such target is S0-102, which has the shortest orbit among the more than 3,000 stars near the supermassive black hole and takes 11.5 years to circle it.

Scientists published their findings online today (July 25) in the journal Science.

Follow Charles Q. Choi on Twitter @cqchoi . Follow us on Twitter @SpaceTotcom and Facebook .


Source link