ISTANBUL – Even before President Recep Tayyip Erdogan was inducted into Turkey last week, he made his way to the forefront of the strong men of the world.
Hours before the oath of office – after 15 years already in power – Mr. Erdogan published a 143-page decree that changed the way almost every government department and public body in the country works.
In the following days, he has enacted several equally long decrees and presidential decisions, centralized power and given him the ability to exercise control in almost all areas of life with almost unrestrained authority
Among the changes that Mr. Erdogan has introduced under the new presidential system These are:
• The office of Prime Minister has been abolished;
• The military was placed under stricter civilian control;
• The president will design the budget, choose judges and many senior officials;  • The President may dismiss Parliament and hold new elections as needed;
• The President appoints, among others, the Head of the National Intelligence Service, the Directorate for Religious Affairs and the Central Bank, as well as Ambassadors, Governors and University Rectors, Top Bureaucrats;
• Practically none of the President's appointments requires a confirmation procedure.
None of Mr. Erdoğan's changes was publicly debated until it became final. The massive accumulation of power completes Turkey's transition from a parliamentary system to the president, which was narrowly voted last year in a referendum by voters.
The extensive decrees, according to the analysts, promise reassigned monthly administrative upheavals in the abolition of agencies and government employees.
Critics have expressed concern over the lack of controls over the increased powers of the President.
"The state is being reorganized around Tayyip Erdogan," columnist Asli Aydintasbas wrote in the secular opposition newspaper Cumhuriyet last week
Many of the changes, say the analysts, only substantiate what was already the case: it is Mr. Erdogan, who makes the decisions. But the consolidation of his power is far-reaching.
Mr. Erdogan has also changed the anti-terrorism law in anticipation of the lifting of the state of emergency, which expires on Thursday and was introduced two years ago after a failed military coup against him.
The new measures put the strong Turkish military under civilian control – a move the President says is necessary in line with the changes made in the EU accession process. For years, the bloc has been licensed to fly to Turkey
But Erdogan and his Islamist counterparts have long called for a presidential system and greater civilian control of the military. The recent history of Turkey is marked by military coups, and the Islamists have shaken more than others under military rule
. Erdogan has placed the Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces under the control of the Ministry of Defense, and the Supreme Military Council, which decides on senior military posts, has been redesigned to include more civilian ministers than military commanders
. Erdogan appointed a loyalist, former Chief of Staff General Hulusi Akar, as his first Minister of Defense under the new system. General Akar resisted the 2016 coup – he was captured by villains on the night of the failed coup d'etat – and has overseen a major clean-up of the armed forces in the two years since
"It seems that Erdogan's transition was so smooth as possible, by calling Akar, the best soldier in Turkey, as defense minister, "columnist Murat Yetkin wrote in The Hurriyet Daily News
Mr. Erdogan outlined his own powers in a new decree after his inauguration. He will appoint the Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces – together with the commanders of the land, air and naval forces and the Deputy Chief of Staff – by presidential decision, which does not require a confirmation process. The president will also make promotions in the upper ranks of the security forces of Colonel up.
Decree 703, shortly before Mr. Erdogan was sworn in for his new term, also removed many of the provisions in the nominations for appointments
For example, the President will appoint the rectors of public and private universities of Turkey, without the usual selection procedure University and University Council
"Yes, US President Trump can appoint a replacement for a seat on the Supreme Court, but he does not appoint a police chief in Massachusetts or a public theater director in Boston," Ms. Aydintasbas commented in Cumhuriyet. "He can not appoint a state governor or even a university rector," she added.
The decree also lowers the qualifications for judges appointed to the administrative courts of the government that regulate government departments. Previously, judges had to have either a law degree or a political science degree, but they can now be removed from any degree program, as the Department of Justice thinks is right.
One of Mr Erdogan's most controversial moves was the appointment of his son-in-law Berat Albayrak as Minister of the Reconstituted Treasury and Ministry of Finance
A presidential letter published in the Official Journal at the weekend also transferred the central bank to the Ministry.
Mr. Erdogan has emphasized that changes are needed to make state institutions more responsive and efficient. However, the latest regulations are melting the legal and practical independence of the central bank, said Umit Akcay, Privatdozent for economics at the Berlin School of Economics and Law – Mail.
Turkish shares and national currency gave way to Erdogan's appointment of a new cabinet, which removed two highly respected officials – Deputy Prime Minister Mehmet Simsek and Finance Minister Naci Agbal – and promoted Mr. Albayrak
. Albayrak commented on changes in the central bank last week to calm the markets.
"The policy in the new period aims to make the central bank more effective than ever," he told a news conference last week. The decisions of the central bank would be determined by the market conditions, he said and promised "a more predictable, simpler and more determined monetary policy in line with the objectives".
However, the appointment of Mr Albayrak is part of the troubling concern of investors, the credit rating service said Moody's statement in the same day. "Such appointments will inevitably raise questions regarding the independence and experience of Mr. Erdogan's administration," said Moody's
. Aydintasbas warned that centralizing power had never worked in Turkey.
"I believe that such a concentration of power tires Turkey, shuts out the state and overburdens the economy," she said. "I hope I'm wrong."