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For more than 111 years, the scientist puzzled over the Tunguska event




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The charred remains of the Tunguska forest, taken by Evgeny Krinov in 1

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Evgeny Krinov

The early morning of June 30, 1908 exploded Something in the sky over the river Stony Tunguska in Siberia, where an estimated 80 million trees were flattened to 820 square miles Many thousands of people in a 900-mile radius observed the Tunguska event and more than 700 accounts were registered Reports describe a fireball in the sky, like a second sun, and a series of explosions "with a terrible noise", followed by tremors of the ground, as "the earth seemed to be wide open and everything would fall into the abyss. "The natives Evenks and Yakuts believed that a god or a shaman had sent the fireball to destroy the world. Various weather stations in Europe recorded both seismic and atmospheric waves. Days later strange phenomena were observed in the skies of Russia and Europe. There are no clouds, colorful sunsets and a faint luminescence at night.

International newspapers speculated about a possible volcanic explosion. Unfortunately, the inaccessibility of the region and the then unstable political situation in Russia prevented further scientific research.

Thirteen years later, Russian mineralogist Leonid Alexeyevich Kulik of the Russian Meteorological Institute of History became interested after reading a newspaper article. Passengers on the Trans-Siberian Railway encountered an impact and even touched the still hot meteorite. Kulik organized an expedition and traveled to Kansk, where he studied reports about the event in the local archives. From the remote outpost of Wanawara, the team ventured into the trackless taiga that followed the Tunguska River. Then, on April 13, Kulik discovered a large area covered with rotting trunks. A massive explosion pushed more than 80 million trees down to 820 square miles. Only in the epicenter of the explosion, in the Tunguska Forest were there still some dead and charred trees.

Despite exploration of the entire area, no impact craters or meteorites were discovered at the site. In the autumn of 1927, a preliminary report by Kulik was published in various national and international newspapers. Kulik suggested that an alien asteroid exploded in the atmosphere, causing the observed explosion and devastation. The absence of an identifiable impact site was explained by the swampy soil, which was too soft to sustain a crater. As a result, the event of 1907 became known as Tunguska Event .

Despite its popularity in pop culture, scientific data on this event is sparse. Immediately after the event, some seismic waves and air pressure waves are registered, and the devastated forest is mapped some thirty years later. Due to the lack of hard data such as a crater or meteorite and contradictory representations, many theories of varying plausibility have been established over the years.

The engineer and sci-fi author Aleksander Kasantsews developed in the episode of an unusual explanation Hiroshima and Nagasaki. He argued that a nuclear explosion of possible extraterrestrial origin caused the Tunguska event. Apart from the pattern of destruction, so Kazantsev's, geomagnetic anomalies recorded at Irkutsk Station were also similar to a nuclear explosion. In 1973, American physicists suggested in the journal Nature that a small black hole collided with our planet, causing a matter-antimatter explosion in the Earth's atmosphere.

In recent years, German astrophysicist Wolfgang Kundt and later Jason Phipps Morgan of Cornell University on Ithaca and Paola Vannucchi of the University of Florence have proposed a terrestrial explanation for the explosion of Tunguska. Verneshots named after the author Jules Verne, are speculative magma / gas reactions that erupt violently from the subsurface. According to this model, a magmatic burglary under Siberia formed a large bubble of volcanic gases trapped by the basalt layers of the Siberian traps. Finally, in June 1908, the cover rocks were shattered by the compressed gases, and burning methane caused the explosion series, as described in some reports. Chemical residues of this combustion, which are distributed in the earth's atmosphere, caused the glowing clouds that were seen around the world. Gas bubbles are observed in the Siberian lakes, but the methane comes from rotting organic matter buried in the frozen soil of the taiga. Geologists mapping the area found no traces of broken rocks or craters, as the Verneshost hypothesis suggests.

The accepted theory that explains the Tunguska event remains a cosmic body that invades the Earth's atmosphere. This idea is supported by reports describing a fireball descending into the taiga, the presence of impact minerals such as nanodiamonds, metal and silicate spheres in sediments, and the cartographic distribution and direction of the flattened trees away from the blast site. The nature of this cosmic body remains unclear. Some reports that describe a series of explosions that last more than ten minutes are hard to explain with a single impact. The recovered geological evidence can also be explained by the sedimentation of cosmic dust in the background, as many small meteorites are decomposed every day in the Earth's atmosphere. In 2007, Luca Gasperini and his research team at the University of Bologna suggested that the small lake Cheko might have been caused by the impact of a fragment of the Tunguska meteorite. Lake Cheko is unusually deep for a region otherwise characterized by shallow ponds formed by melting permafrost. There are no records of the lake before 1908, but it is also true that the region was poorly mapped and explored at this time and not all scientists agree with this theory.

More than a hundred years after the event, there is little evidence to survive. Seen from above, there is no evidence that trees have repopulated the devastated area. There are only a few stumps found on the ground that were killed by the incident. Most are already rotted or buried in the swamp.

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The charred remains of the Tunguska Forest, taken by Evgeny Krinov in 1929.

Evgeny Krinov

Early in the morning of June 30, 1908, something exploded in the sky above the stony Tunguska in Siberia, crushing an estimated 80 million trees over 820 square miles, and many thousands of people within a 900-mile radius observed the Tunguska event, and more than 700 reports were subsequently collected, describing a fireball in the sky as a second sun. and a series of explosions "with a terrible sound," followed by the ground shaking as "the earth seemed to open wide and everything would fall into the abyss." The natives Evenks and Yakuts believed that a god or shaman had sent the fireball In order to destroy the world, various meteorological stations in Europe both recorded seismic and atmospheric waves, days later In the sky of Russia and Europe strange phenomena are observed, such as glowing clouds, colorful sunsets and a faint luminescence at night.

International newspapers speculated about a possible volcanic explosion. Unfortunately, the inaccessibility of the region and the then unstable political situation in Russia prevented further scientific research.

Thirteen years later, Russian mineralogist Leonid Alexeyevich Kulik of the Russian Meteorological Institute of History became interested after reading a newspaper article. Passengers on the Trans-Siberian Railway encountered an impact and even touched the still hot meteorite. Kulik organized an expedition and traveled to Kansk, where he studied reports about the event in the local archives. From the remote outpost of Wanawara, the team ventured into the trackless taiga that followed the Tunguska River. Then, on April 13, Kulik discovered a large area covered with rotting trunks. A massive explosion crushed more than 80 million trees over an area of ​​820 square miles. Only in the epicenter of the explosion, in the Tunguska Forest were there still some dead and charred trees.

Despite exploration of the entire area, no impact craters or meteorites were discovered at the site. In the autumn of 1927, a preliminary report by Kulik was published in various national and international newspapers. Kulik suggested that an alien asteroid exploded in the atmosphere, causing the observed explosion and devastation. The absence of an identifiable impact site was explained by the swampy soil, which was too soft to sustain a crater. As a result, the event of 1907 became known as Tunguska Event .

Despite its popularity in pop culture, scientific data on this event is sparse. Immediately after the event, some seismic waves and air pressure waves are registered, and the devastated forest is mapped some thirty years later. Due to the lack of hard data such as a crater or meteorite and contradictory representations, many theories of varying plausibility have been established over the years.

The engineer and sci-fi author Aleksander Kasantsews developed Hiroshima and Nagasaki in an episode of an unusual explanation. He argued that a nuclear explosion of possible extraterrestrial origin caused the Tunguska event. Apart from the pattern of destruction, so Kazantsev's, geomagnetic anomalies recorded at Irkutsk Station were also similar to a nuclear explosion. In 1973, American physicists suggested in the journal Nature that a small black hole collided with our planet, causing a matter-antimatter explosion in the Earth's atmosphere.

In recent years, German astrophysicist Wolfgang Kundt and later Jason Phipps Morgan of Cornell University on Ithaca and Paola Vannucchi of the University of Florence have proposed a terrestrial explanation for the explosion of Tunguska. Verneshots named after the author Jules Verne, are speculative magma / gas reactions that erupt violently from the subsurface. According to this model, a magmatic burglary under Siberia formed a large bubble of volcanic gases trapped by the basalt layers of the Siberian traps. Finally, in June 1908, the cover rocks were shattered by the compressed gases, and burning methane caused the explosion series, as described in some reports. Chemical residues of this combustion, which are distributed in the earth's atmosphere, caused the glowing clouds that were seen around the world. Gas bubbles are observed in the Siberian lakes, but the methane comes from rotting organic matter buried in the frozen soil of the taiga. Geologists who mapped the area found no traces of broken rocks or craters, as the Verneshost hypothesis suggests. This idea is supported by reports describing a fireball descending into the taiga, the presence of impact minerals such as nanodiamonds, metal and silicate spheres in sediments, and the cartographic distribution and direction of the flattened trees away from the blast site. The nature of this cosmic body remains unclear. Some reports that describe a series of explosions that last more than ten minutes are hard to explain with a single impact. The recovered geological evidence can also be explained by the sedimentation of cosmic dust in the background, as many small meteorites are decomposed every day in the Earth's atmosphere. In 2007, Luca Gasperini and his research team at the University of Bologna suggested that the small lake Cheko might have been caused by the impact of a fragment of the Tunguska meteorite. Lake Cheko is unusually deep for a region otherwise characterized by shallow ponds formed by melting permafrost. There are no records of the lake before 1908, but it is also true that the region was poorly mapped and explored at this time and not all scientists agree with this theory.

More than a hundred years after the event, there is little evidence to survive. Seen from above, there is no evidence that trees have repopulated the devastated area. There are only a few stumps on the ground, most of which are already rotten or buried in the swamp.


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