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Home / Science / Happy Birthday NASA – celebrate 60 years of space exploration

Happy Birthday NASA – celebrate 60 years of space exploration

NASA – the US Space Agency, which brought people to the moon and was at the forefront of space exploration – is celebrating its 60th anniversary.

The organization has not only pushed the boundaries of human knowledge within our solar system and the Earth's distant universe, but it has also been crucial to developing the technologies we use every day on Earth.

Here's a look back at some accomplishments, setbacks, and the contributions that his research has made to technological developments. The launch of the first US satellite was a milestone for the burgeoning America space program, if not for NASA – which it has not and humanity that had seen Sputnik 1

of the USSR a year earlier.

  The creators of Explorer 1 with a model of it at the press conference on the day of launch (or the day before), February 1, 1958 (or January 31, 1958). From the left: Ph.D. William Pickering, Ph.D. James Van Allen, Ph.D. Wernher von Braun
Explorer 1 in the hands of (LR) William Pickering, James Van Allen, Wernher von Braun

Explorer 1 was created by three scientists playing a crucial role in the US space program William Pickering, James Van Allen and Wernher von Braun – a former Nazi who was secretly relocated to the United States together with hundreds of other German scientists after the Second World War.

  Astronaut Alan Shepard takes off in the Freedom-7 Mercury spacecraft on May 5
Freedom 7 lifted off on May 5, 1961

Alan Shepard was the first American in space, although NASA was beaten again to make a world record from the USSR, where Yuri Gargarin's Travel less than had done a month earlier.

The mission lasted only fifteen minutes and twenty-two seconds, but it provided NASA with valuable insights into the challenges that space travel would bring.

It has been observed by an estimated 45 million television viewers in the US alone

  Mercury-Redstone 3 spaceflight (MR-3) Observations of a cloudy surface of the earth.
Picture of Freedom 7 taken space flight of a cloudy earth surface

Mr. Shepard, for example, was stuck in the spacecraft for hours before take-off, urgently urinating, but there was no suitable (19659002) The mission control warned Shepard not to get wet, as this could short the electrical components on his body.

Eventually, Mr. Shepard persuaded the team to turn off the unit's electronics and urinate him in his suit – which soon dried up with the oxygen circulating around him.

Thanks to his sacrifice, modern astronauts have the freedom to go to the bathroom in their suits.

It is one of the most iconic images ever taken, taken by the Apollo 8 spacecraft as it circled the moon.

The Earthrise photograph was taken on Christmas Eve 1968 and has become one of the most frequently reproduced images of human history. # 39; Earthrise & # 39; Photo of Apollo 8, the first manned mission to the moon. The crew entered Lunar Orbit on Christmas Eve, December 24, 1968. That evening, the astronauts were broadcast live and showed images of the Earth and the Moon as seen from their spaceship.

The famous "Earthrise" photo of Apollo 8

The image exhausted by the astronaut Bill Anders gave people a new perspective on their home planet. He later said that despite all the training and preparation for exploring the moon, the astronauts had discovered Earth.

NASA was beaten to create a satellite, and was beaten to send a man into space, one of the greatest achievements humanity could ever consider – bringing a man to the moon.

This is a small step for man, a big leap for humanity.

Neil Armstrong

Just seven months after the Apollo 8 mission, the three Apollo 11 astronauts embarked on a mission to land on the Moon.

On the morning of July 16, Neil Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin, and Michael Collins entered orbit around Earth, and three days later the Moon was in orbit.

The following day, Armstrong and Aldrin climbed into the Eagle lunar module and began the descent while Collins moved on in the command module Columbia.

  060280 01: Astronaut David Scott greets next to the USA flag July 30, 1971 on the moon during the Apollo 15 mission. (Photo by NASA / Liaison)
David Scott Salutes Next to the American Flag on the Moon in 1971 as Part of the Apollo 15 Mission

Collins later wrote that Eagle was "the strangest-looking device I've ever seen in the sky ". but it remains one of the most iconic devices ever seen.

An estimated 530 million people watched the worldwide live broadcast of the Lunar Land, which was not broadcasted in the Eastern Bloc (with the exception of Romania) and went off at 1:56 in the UK.

  17th April 1970: Apollo XIII salvage operations in the South Pacific. Astronaut and lunar module pilot Fred W Haise Jr is currently being drafted into a rescue helicopter by USS Iwo Jima. Commander John L Swigert Jr (center) and Commander James A Lovell Jr (right) await their return. A member of an underwater demolition team helps with recovery. (Photo by NASA / Hulton Archive / Getty Images)
17. April 1970: Apollo XIII Salvation in the South Pacific

The fear of number 13 was long before the Apollo mission, but the shocking explosion that shook Apollo 13 finally gave NASA the opportunity to show off its cool heads and serenity – along with good luck – it enabled one of the most incredible rescue missions ever to take place.

  Pioneer 10 was the first spacecraft to sail through the asteroid belt

Pioneer 10 was the first spacecraft to cross the asteroid belt

The unmanned flight was the first to Jupiter, Saturn and the Milky Way flew. It was the first to pass through the asteroid belt, continuing observations and close-ups of Jupiter.

Pioneer 10 reached speeds of 82,000 mph (131,200 kmph) as it traversed the asteroid belt.

It was traced on a similar trajectory by Pioneer 11 in 1973, a year after Pioneer 10.

Pioneer took measurements of the magnetosphere, the radiation belt, the magnetic field, the atmosphere and the interior of Jupiter. It sent back its last, very weak signal to Earth in January 2003.

  The Space Shuttle starts for the first time in 1981
The Space Shuttle starts for the first time in 1981

After the Apollo missions came the era of space ferries. NASA originally had the vision of a reusable two-stage vehicle with a first-tier orbiter that would then return to Earth.

But budget problems meant that they could not construct a two-tier model. The design, which was finally brought to life, was used until 2011.

The first launch was to take place in 1976, but it was in 1981 before the Space Shuttle Challenger launched.

He circled safely back on Earth for two days in April earlier, paving the way for the next 30 years of carrying humans into space, repairing satellites, and doing research.

Pioneer 10 and 11 both wore plaques identifying their time and place of origin, but NASA was more ambitious when it came to Voyager.

  The golden record sent sounds of the earth into the room
The golden record sent sounds of the earth into the room

It carried on the sounds of the earth, a golden record with salutations in the space Akkadian spoken 6,000 years ago, with Wu, a Chinese dialect.

It also contained songs from around the world, including pieces by Bach and Beethoven and Johnny B Goode by Chuck Berry [1 9659063] It was worn on Voyager “/>

It was worn on Voyager [19659007] Voyager left our solar system in 1990 and it will take about 40,000 years to get in touch with another planetary system.

The Golden Record can now be purchased on vinyl and CD and is even available on Soundcloud.

In 1986, the launch of the Space Shuttle Challenger was triggered by a disaster. Within 73 seconds of launch, the shuttle "exploded" and killed all seven astronauts on board, including high school teacher Christa McAuliffe.

According to National Geographic, the tragedy was a complicated one, as the shuttles fuel tank collapsed and released liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen propellants. This created a huge fireball in the air.

  The Challenger was destroyed shortly after launch
The Challenger was destroyed shortly after launch
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All seven astronauts on board were killed

The shuttle was still intact, but broke apart when it could not absorb the force. The crew cab was separated from the payload and the chunks fell and broke more in the water.

It is not clear when the crew died, as they were probably still alive until they hit the Atlantic Ocean

  The Challenger was destroyed shortly after launch
The Challenger was short Destroyed after Takeoff
  The Earth as a Pale Blue Point, from Neptune
Image: [19659007] The Earth as a Pale Blue Point, from Neptune

On February 14, 1990, Voyager 1 took off the Earth's first image Neptune on. The family portrait filmed Neptune, Uranus, Saturn, Jupiter, Earth and Venus.

Carl Sagan, a member of the Voyager 1 imaging team, wrote in his book Pale Blue Dot, "This is here, it's at home, that's us all you love, everyone you know, everyone, of whom you have ever heard, every person who has ever lived their lives …

"There may not be a better demonstration of the folly of human imagination than this distant image of our tiny world.

In April 1990, the Hubble Space Telescope was deployed from the Discovery Space Shuttle.

Designed by the Marshall Space Flight Center, it has captured some of the best-known images of space we know 19659002] Developing and developing the same center the Hubble successor James Webb Space Telescope, which will launch in October 2018.

  A planetary nebula called NGC 6302, also known as Butterfly Nebula and Bug Nebula
A planetary nebula called NGC 6302, also known as , Butterfl y Nebula and Bug Nebula
 Carina Nebula pictured by Hubble Telescope
Nebula Carina Nebula pictured by Hubble Telescope

The telescope has more than 1.3 m Observed since it began, and returned to Earth […].

There were more than 13.4 billion light years from Earth back.

When NASA landed the Pathfinder on Mars, it brought the Internet to a standstill, desperately demanding people's pictures and information about their journey.

The Boy Scout became a turning point in how the public could see information about the missions. The days of waiting for print newspapers to publish pictures were behind room fans from this point on.

  NASA Pathfinder Sojourner Rover robotic data acquisition vehicle exploring the surface area of ​​the planet Mars
NASA Pathfinder Sojourner robotic rover data collector investigating the surface area of ​​the planet Mars

Pathfinder's mission is to transform technology and technology Demonstrate the material needed to bring a lander to Mars efficiently and cost-effectively.

The Rover named Sojourner American civil rights activist Sojourner Truth and the Pathfinder both survived their design lives.

The Boy Scout has returned 2.3 million pieces of information, including 16,500 Lander images and 550 Rover images.

The International Space Station is a joint project between the US, Russia, Japan, the European Space Agency and the Canadian Space Agency

The first part of the ISS was launched in 1998, and the last printing module was installed in 2011 , It is expected to be operational by 2028.

  The International Space Station accommodates astronauts conducting various types of research
The International Space Station hosts astronauts conducting various types of research

Since the beginning, 230 people from 18 countries have visited the station and have been occupied continuously since 2000.

Since 1998 there have been 205 spacewalks for the construction, maintenance and repair of the station.

The space station travels an equivalent distance to the moon and back in about a day.

Scientists aboard the ISS can perform up to 20 payloads at a time, including growing plants in space.

The ISS orbits the earth, even from big cities.

  An artist's impression of the Martian Spirit
An artist's impression of the Martian Spirit

Mars Geist and Opportunity Rover were launched in 2003 and landed on the red planet in 2004. They are looking for evidence of the history of the water on the planet.

They each have panoramic cameras, thermal emission spectrometers and alpha particle X-ray spectrometers. The tools help them carry out on-site geological surveys, which they send back to NASA.

Spirit resigned from communication with NASA in May 2011. But the mission estimate of 90 days has far surpassed them.

Nasa last belongs to Opportunity in June 2018.

The Curiosity Rover landed on Mars in 2012, exploring the possibility of life on Mars.

The rover analyzes soil and rock samples and examines how the Martian atmosphere looked in the distance

  The Mars Curiosity Rover takes a selfie
The Mars Curiosity Rover takes a selfie

Im In June 2018, the Curiosity found more evidence that Mars could have supported ancient life, including "tough" organic molecules in sedimentary rocks containing elements such as carbon and hydrogen.

Curiosity has also found references to water, which is vital.

It found evidence in the Gale crater for water billions of years that could have supported life on the planet, which is now inhospitable.

  NASA Mars Rover on the surface of Mars. Artist Impression
NASA Mars Rover on the surface of Mars. Artist Impression

Mars 2020 is the next step in life exploration on Mars.

The Rover will have 23 cameras, with a larger color and 3D images compared to its predecessors.

The cameras will also give you a wider field of view and therefore take less time to pan, catch and sew, as they can see more with just one image.

The Rover 2020 will select and store some rock and soil samples that could bring it back to Earth on a future mission.

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