AP Exclusive: Stephen Hawking's Wheelchair, Final Thesis
By JILL LAWLESS
Monday, October 22
LONDON (AP) – Stephen Hawking was a cosmic visionary, one Inspiration figure and a worldwide celebrity.
Its unique status is reflected in an upcoming auction of some of the deceased physicist's possessions: it contains complex scientific papers, one of the world's best-known wheelchairs, and a screenplay from The Simpsons.
The online sale announced by Christie's on Auction Day features 22 articles by Hawking, including his doctoral dissertation on the origins of the universe, some of his numerous awards, and scientific papers such as Spectrum of Wormholes and Fundamental Breakdown of Physics in Gravitational Collapse ". "
Thomas Venning, head of books and manuscripts at Christie's, said the newspapers" track the evolution of his thinking ̵
You can see every advance in how it was produced and presented to the scientific community," said Venning.
Of course, Hawking's fame is only partly due to his scientific status as a cosmologist who put black holes on the map.
At age 22, diagnosed with motor neuron disease and only living a few years, he survived for decades and died at 76 in March.
The auction contains one of five existing copies of Hawking's 1965 Cambridge University Ph. D. Thesis, "Properties of Expanding Universes," which carries an estimated price of £ 100,000 to £ 150,000 ($ 130,000 to $ 195,000).
Venning said that the thesis, signed by Hawking in the manuscript shaken by his illness, is a key document in the physicist's scientific development and a glimpse into his personal history.
"He was diagnosed with ALS (Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis) just as he arrived in Cambridge for his PhD studies," Venning said. "He gave up his studies for a time because he was so desperate.
The thesis" was the fruit of him, reiterating his scientific work, "said Venning, and Hawking" held it for the rest of his life him . "
The illness finally paralyzed Hawking almost completely, communicating through a voice computer and moving a number of high-tech wheelchairs, one on sale, with an estimated price of £ 10,000 to £ 15,000 ($ 13,000 to $ 19,500). Proceeds from the sale go to two charities, the Stephen Hawking Foundation and the Motor Neurone Disease Association.
Venning said the wheelchair is not just a symbol of disability, but also for Hawking's "puking sense of humor" Charles & # 39; Toes – and supposedly joked that he wished he had done the same thing with Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher – and appeared in a "Monty Python" sketch running his colleague physicist Brian Cox.
Venning Hawking said "a lot of himself himself as a scientist first and a popular communicator second, "but even accepted and even enjoyed his celebrity status appeared several times in the animated comedy show "The Simpsons" and kept a figure of himself from the show in his office.
The sale contains a script of one of Hawking's "Simpsons" appearances, a copy of his bestseller "A Brief History of Time" signed with a thumbprint and a personalized bomber jacket, which he wore in a documentary.
Hawking's daughter Lucy said the sale provided "admirers of his work the chance to commemorate the extraordinary life of our father in the form of a small selection of evocative and intriguing objects."
Hawking's children hope to have his scientific archive for to preserve the nation. Christie's is conducting negotiations to hand it over to the UK authorities instead of inheritance tax.
The pieces – part of a science sale that includes papers by Isaac Newton, Charles Darwin, and Albert Einstein – will be exhibited for several days in London on October 30th. The auction is open for bids between October 31st and November 8th.
Follow Jill Lawless on Twitter at http://twitter.com/JillLawless
Banksy and the Tradition of Destruction of Art
October 19, 2018
Author: Preminda Jacob, Associate Professor of Art History and Museum Studies, University of Maryland, Baltimore County
Disclosure Statement: Preminda Jacob does not work for, consult, own shares or receive funding from any company or organization that would benefit from this article, and has no relevant affiliations with theirs academic appointment revealed.
Partner: University of Maryland, Baltimore County provides funding as member The Conversation US
When British street artist Banksy shredded his "Girl With Balloon" after being sold at Sotheby's for 1.4 Millions of dollars had been bought, he knew how the art world would react?
Did he anticipate that? would argue that the work in its partially shredded state would increase to at least $ 2 million? That the buyer would not protest and would be happy instead?
We can not really know, though the famous anonymous artist hinted that the Shredder is not working: the painting should be completely shredded, not partially destroyed.
As an art historian, I see his action in a larger context – as the latest example of artists using guerrilla tactics to gain their contempt for the critics, dealers, gallery owners, and museum curators they rely on for their livelihood unveiling With "Girl With Balloon" shredding, Banksy seems to point to a central absurdity of his graffiti art as a visual art. If it appears on the streets of the city, anyone can destroy it. Now that the same pictures are in galleries and auction houses, they must be handled with white gloves.
But, as he may know, the art market is far too wealthy and adaptable to be undone by a shredder.
In fact, we've been playing the same pattern over and over again: An artist is going to initiate a scathing critique, and instead of getting annoyed, the market just tightens his embrace.
The Many Versions of Subversion
Some of the best known of Banksy's subversive artistic predecessors were part of the Dada movement of the early 20th century. One of their main strategies was to deny the market of objects that could become commodities.
The Franco-American artist Marcel Duchamp is perhaps the most famous Dadaist. In 1917, his "Fountain", a urinal set on its back and resting on a pedestal, was its first salvo against the intellectual demands of the art market for art.
Duchamp wanted to force the art world to recognize their judgments about quality, based more on media hype and money than on artistic innovation.
Years later, however, Duchamp admitted the futility of his gesture.
"I threw … … the urinal in their faces as a challenge," he lamented, "and now they admire [it] for [its] aesthetic beauty."
In 1920 Francis Picabia, a Cuban-French Dadaist, succeeded , Duchamps leadership and participated in a performance that was intended to provoke the French art world.
Before A crowd of Paris gathered in the Palais des Fêtes, Picabia unveiled a chalk drawing titled "Riz au Nez" ("Rice on the Nose"). The friend of the artist, André Breton, one of the hosts of the event, then deleted the drawing. The artwork lasted only a few hours and is now lost in history. The title of the work, it was noted, sounds too similar to "rire au nez" (to laugh in the face) to be random.
In 1953, Robert Rauschenberg, then an aspiring American artist, took the courage to ask Willem de Kooning, an established abstract expressionist, for one of his drawings. Rauschenberg did not tell de Kooning much – only that he wanted to use it for an unusual project. Although de Kooning was disapproving, he gave in.
After securing his gift, Rauschenberg continued for a month to carefully remove all traces of de Kooning's expressive pencil, charcoal, and chalk drawings.
Rauschenberg has renamed the work "Erased de Kooning Drawing", kept in the collection of the San Francisco Art Museum.
Jean Tinguely's self-destruct "Homage to New York" (1960) is probably the closest parallel to Banksy's stunt. The massive work – 27 feet high and 23 feet long – was supposed to consist of scrap metal found in New Jersey scrap yards, should be a mechanical display, like a Rube Goldberg device.
The piece was placed on the sculpture garden of The New York Museum of Modern Art and the visitors to the exhibit were the collectors Walter Arensberg and John D. Rockefeller III as well as the artists John Cage, Mark Rothko and Robert Rauschenberg.
Tinguely briefly set the piece in motion – and then broke a flames.
The Museum of Modern Art described the scene:
"… a meteorological test balloon was inflated and burst, colored smoke was expelled, pictures taken and destroyed, bottles crashed to the ground, a player piano, metal drums, a radio broadcast, a The recording of the artist who explained his work and a competing shrill voice that corrected him provided the cacophonic soundtrack for the machine's self-destruction – until it was stopped by the fire department. "
Apart from a fragment from Tinguely's" Homage " which is kept in the MoMA collection, only a few choppy filming remains.
Some black and white movies shot "Homeage to New York" before it disappeared forever
It's hard to imagine anyone outperforming Tinguely's sound-and-light spectacle.
But in 2001, Michael Landy of the Young British Artists Group orchestrated the most comprehensive work, "Art as Destruction."
Titled "Breakdown," Landy placed objects on a conveyor belt that ran into a machine that pulverized them. He destroyed all his belongings – a total of 7,227 – including his own paintings and the art of his young British artist colleagues.
Guerrillas in the Center
These acts of destruction are motivated by the same impulse
In the late 19th century, art production was largely divorced from the patronage of the church or the state, and artists turned to powerful art dealers for their livelihood.
But many found that the radical, critical aspect of the artistic act was severely compromised – or completely extinguished – as the most recognizable feature of a work became the dollar sign.
For many, the market symbolized nothing but a void.
Using the Urban Street As his studio and uprising as part of his artistic mission, Banksy's graffiti often criticizes institutions such as the Museum of Art and authority figures such as the police and the Queen of England.
Although the market value of his work has increased dramatically in recent years, Banksy continues to paint pictures in public spaces that make preservation almost impossible – and even invite theft or disfigurement.
Nevertheless, Banksy's latest work as a guerrilla theater will be hard to beat. It is certainly his most subversive and penetrating public push into the elitist art market.
But even with all its criticism, the question remains: is Banksy involved in the art market? The society he undermines, feeds on the spectacle has made him famous and made his art extremely profitable.
In the aftermath of the First World War, Dadaist artists shocked their public audiences by wantonly destroying their own artistic creations. The public soon learned to cheer them on and, to distance themselves from the attacks, the artists actively carried out their sensibilities.
A century later, at Sotheby's, the first shock of a torn "girl with balloon" quickly dissolved. The hype just grew. The market has changed.
Sotheby's has since published a statement declaring that the play – renamed "Love is in the Bin" – is "the first work of art in history created during an auction."
Terrence Treft: Thanks for the interesting article. in the case of Rauschenberg, he destroys De Kooning to create his own work, but of the Ticely and Banksy, "destruction" was an original aspect of the work itself and its conception. without them the works would be incomplete, like a missing brush stroke, but on a larger scale. In fact, the banking sector will not even be destroyed, it will be strengthened, more relevant and more valuable. banksy now says the shredder failed, unlike the rehearsals in the studio when the paper was completely shredded. a happy coincidence for the new owner. but there had to be a collusion in this piece, for no doubt he noticed the unusual shape of the frame and its weight. even the audience would have noticed that he was standing in front of the wall.
Bob Bruce: Certainly the goal is to destroy the artwork at auction – as a result of secondary sales that do not bring great benefits to the creator. Works of art should be the subject of a percentage of continued benefit to the artist. (19459003) AG DeWine, Preventing Blindness, Ohio Vision Professionals Board Warn Against Dangerous Cosmetic Contacts
(COLUMBUS, Ohio) Ohio Attorney General Mike DeWine, the Ohio affiliate of Prevent Blindness, and The Ohio Vision Professionals Board has teamed up to To warn consumers of the dangers of wearing decorative contact lenses that do not have a valid prescription this Halloween season.
According to estimates from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 45 million people in the United States are wearing contact lenses. Many consumers may not be aware that contact lenses are medical devices and are regulated by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) through the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act. In addition, the FDA states that contact lenses are not over-the-counter (OTC) devices and companies that sell them as such abuse the device and violate Federal Trade Commission (FTC) regulations by selling contact lenses without a valid one To have a recipe.
"Wearing contacts without a prescription could harm a person's eyes," said Attorney General DeWine. "Non-prescription contacts can add creativity to a costume or make a person's routine easier, but they can also cause serious harm." I encourage consumers to buy contacts from a licensed ophthalmologist, and their vision is too important to risk the use of over-the-counter contacts . "
The Ohio Vision Professionals Board warns that cosmetic contacts could be sold illegally online – including on Craigslist or more recently via Facebook – or in costume shops and tattoo parlors (19459003) Kathleen Eagan, executive director of the Ohio Vision Professionals Board , says: "The Ohio Vision Professionals Board takes the dangers of shopping on contact lenses very seriously, and we are proud to work with Prevent Blindness to educate the public about the dangers of illegal contact sales without professional assessment and guidance care and wearing of contact lenses. If you are aware of illegal contact charges, we recommend that you notify the Vision Professionals Board. "
Contact lenses are a good option for many as an alternative to eyeglasses, but contact lenses also present an increased risk of infection, including sleeping in contact lenses when not approved by an ophthalmologist, cleaning the lenses, or Poorly seated lenses can cause eye pain, bacterial infections cause corneal ulcers A study found that wearing decorative lenses increased the risk of developing keratitis, potentially a blinding infection that causes an ulcer in the eye.This increased risk was more than 16 times more likely than that seen with vision correction lenses ("normal" lenses).
"It might be tempting to have a unique look for Halloween or others to create social events by looking at the exterior changed the eyes. But be sure to ask for annoyance when using cosmetic contact lenses that are borrowed without prescription from an ophthalmologist or from another person. Infections, scarring and even blindness can be the result, "said Sherry Williams, President and CEO of Ohio member firm Prevent Blindness.
" I've seen many young patients who were unaware of the dangers of these products and now live with them permanent loss of vision, "said Thomas L. Steinemann, MD, a professor of ophthalmology at Case Western Reserve University / MetroHealth Medical Center and a volunteer blind blindness." Even if the lenses are cosmetic or non-corrective, they are still considered
Prevent Blindness offers the following safety tips for cosmetic contact lenses
Always on Visit Licensed Eye Specialist for Cosmetic Contact Lenses
Never buy contact lenses without prescription
Always clean contact lenses correctly and disinfect
Always use water-soluble or harmless cosmetics for use with contact lenses. Do not apply skin creams or moisturizers too close to the eyes.
Never wear opaque lenses if you have night vision problems.
Never share or exchange your contact lenses with others.
Seek medical advice immediately and remove your contact lenses if your eyes are red or have persistent pain or discharge. Pay attention to the look of your children or teenagers. If they have cosmetic contacts, question them where they received them.
The non-profit group has its own website with free information.
Attorney General DeWine encourages the Ohioans to report illegal sales of contact lenses to the Ohio Vision Professionals Board at 614-466-9709. As a US Senator, DeWine sponsored the legislation requiring consumers to receive a prescription from a licensed professional to buy contact lenses, including corrective and non-corrective lenses.
AAA Calls on Legislators to Make Ohio's Road Safer
House Bill 293 Will Save Lives by Modernizing Ohio's New Driving License System
COLUMBUS, Ohio (October 18, 2018) – Motor vehicle crashes are still the leading cause of death for teens, and the problem is getting worse. Teen crash rates continue to rise in Ohio and put everyone at risk. In the run up to Teen Driver Safety Week (October 21-27), AAA is encouraging lawmakers to pass important life-saving laws that will make Ohio's roads safer by modernizing Ohio's young driver's license system.
A series of press events and rallies are taking place in Toledo, Dayton, Cincinnati and Columbus today to support this cause. The Columbus event will be held at 10 am in the Senate Press Room at the Ohio Statehouse.
"Parents rely on the state's state driving license system to guide them and their children through the learning process, but our state young driver licensing system is failing families," said Kellie O Riordan, Road Safety Program Manager for AAA Ohio , "It has not come up with the latest research on teenage driver crashes and how to prevent them."
Ohio Teen Crash Epidemic:
The number of people crashed in Ohio teenage driver crashes jumped 15 percent in just 2 years. In 2017, 116 teenagers died in traffic accidents on Ohio's streets. New teenage drivers, ages 16 to 17, are three times more likely than adults to be involved in a fatal accident.
It's an issue that affects everyone, as the AAA Foundation for Road Safety identifies two-thirds of those injured or killed Accidents with teen drivers are different people than the teenage driver.
Inexperience is responsible for a large number of crashes. Night driving is especially dangerous for these young novice drivers.
House Bill 293, sponsored by Representative Gary Scherer (R) and Representative Michael Sheehy (D), proposes to make Ohio's roads safer for all drivers by providing more experience to teenagers. More specifically, the bill:
Ensuring that teenagers in all seasons gain experience with an adult to guide them during a one-year learning permit.
Give young novice drivers more practice of driving at night with an adult driver They are sure to start the night driving protection for newly licensed teenage drivers at 22 o'clock instead of midnight.
The nocturnal driving protection is not a curfew. Newly licensed teenage drivers can drive with an adult after 10pm. The bill also provides for exceptions for newly licensed teen drivers before or after work, school and religious activities after 22.00 hours.
A new AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety study confirms the importance of an adult driver helping young novice drivers. The study found that when a teenage driver has only teenage passengers in their vehicle, the death rate has risen by 51 percent. In contrast, when older passengers (35 or older) drive with a teenager, the total number of deaths from traffic accidents dropped by 8 percent.
Support for Change:
"The HB 293 will help new drivers acquire vehicle handling skills, improve their ability to judge traffic, and become better defensive drivers," said Susan Hans. President of Ohio PTA. "We believe that parents greatly support additional driving experience to ensure the safety of teenagers."
A 2013 survey found that 90 percent of Ohio parents who had teenagers were assisted at 10 in the morning. nocturnal driving protection. After North Carolina issued a 12-month learning permit, 95 percent of parents surveyed said 12 months were right or not long enough.
H.B. 293 was released from the Committee on Transport and Public Security in Ohio on February 28, 2018, and awaiting a vote in the House of Representatives. The bill must pass the House and Senate by the end of the year to become law.
A coalition of more than 50 organizations, including AAA, the insurance industry, law enforcement, hospitals, youth and the Parents Teachers Association urges legislators to take action. The bill has no known opponents.
A Stephen Hawking book and scripts are among the personal and academic possessions of Stephen Hawking at the Christie auction house in London, Friday, October 19, 2018. The online auction announced Monday Oct. 22, 2018, by auctioneer Christie & # 39; s 22 articles by Hawking, including his doctoral thesis on the origins of the universe, scheduled for sale for October 31 and November 8. (AP Photo / Frank Augstein)
https://www.sunburynews.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/48/2018/10/web1_121616717-d19013de65da46bb9a97b0bfe7907fd9.jpgA book and scripts by Stephen Hawking are among the personal and academic holdings by Stephen Hawking at the Christie auction house in London, Friday, October 19, 2018. The online auction, dated October 22, 2018, announced auction house Christie has 22 articles by Hawking, including his doctoral thesis on the origins of the universe, with the Sale scheduled for October 31 and November 8. (AP Photo / Frank Augstein)
A book signed with a thumb print by Stephen Hawking is one of the personal and academic possessions of Stephen Hawking, photograph behind, at the Christie auction house in London, Friday, October 19, 2018 The auction, announced on October 22, 2018 by auctioneer Christie's, includes 22 articles by Hawking, including his PhD on the origins of the universe, with the sale scheduled for October 31 and November 8 , (AP Photo / Frank Augstein)
https://www.sunburynews.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/48/2018/10/web1_121616717-c85ee26ea1d740c6ba6188567afe13ab.jpgA book signed with a thumb print by Stephen Hawking one of the personal and academic possessions by Stephen Hawking, photo behind, at the Christie auction house in London, Friday, October 19, 2018. The online auction, announced on Monday, October 22, 2018, by auctioneer Christie's 22 articles by Hawking, including his doctoral thesis on the origins of the universe, with the sale planned for October 31 and November 8. (AP Photo / Frank Augstein)
A book written and corrected with a handwritten note by Stephen Hawking is one of the personal and academic possessions of Stephen Hawking, to be exhibited on October 19, 2018 at the Christie auction house in London. The auction, announced on October 22, 2018 by the auctioneer Christie's, comprises 22 articles by Hawking, including his PhD on the origins of the universe, with the sale scheduled for October 31 and November 8. (AP Photo / Frank Augstein)
https://www.sunburynews.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/48/2018/10/web1_121616717-8c75736111ea4427b6f2e5b64ef1da1d.jpg A book written and corrected with Stephen's handwritten annotation Hawking is one of the personal and academic possessions of Stephen Hawking to be exhibited on Friday, October 19, 2018, at the Christie auction house in London. The online auction, announced on October 22, 2018 by auctioneer Christie's, includes 22 articles by Hawking on his doctoral dissertation on the origins of the universe, with the sale scheduled for October 31 and November 8. (AP Photo / Frank Augstein)
Original article can be found here