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People who develop high blood pressure before the age of 40 are at higher risk for heart disease and middle-aged stroke, two new studies suggest ,
One of the studies followed 4,800 young adults in the US and found that they had raised their blood pressure before the age of 40 in conjunction with up to three and a half times the risk of heart disease and stroke over a period of about 1
The second study examined data on just under 2.5 million young adults in South Korea over the course of a decade and also found that high blood pressure before the age of 40 was associated with an increased risk of heart disease and strokes. Women were up to 76 percent more at risk for cardiovascular disease in this study, while the risk for men was 85 percent higher than their normal age counterparts.
"Increased blood pressure in early adulthood may lead to heart attacks multiple mechanisms, and these blood pressure levels may lead to higher levels over time," said Ramachandran Vasan of the Boston University School of Medicine and the School of Public Health.
High blood pressure is often associated with other risk factors, such as obesity, high cholesterol, high blood sugar and smoking, which increase the risk of stroke and heart attack, said Vasan, author of an accompanying editorial, by email. These can damage target organs, including the heart and arteries, and promote the thickening of arterial walls and the build-up of cholesterol deposits and plaques in the arteries. This creates a substrate ("soil", if you will) for future heart attacks and strokes.
For the studies, both published Tuesday in the Journal of the American Medical Association, researchers looked at hypertension using new, more aggressive targets recommended by the American Heart Association and the American College of Cardiology in 2017. The new Recommendations They relied on new evidence suggesting that a slightly elevated blood pressure at the beginning of life could be a precursor to cardiovascular disease with advancing age.
Patients were considered to be hypertensive when the highest number of their readings or the systolic pressure (the pressure) on the arterial walls when the heart beats), on average at least 130 millimeters of mercury.
It has also been hypothesized that they have high blood pressure when the lower number or diastolic pressure (reflecting the Pressure against the arterial walls when the heart rests between the blows) on average at least s 80 millimeters of mercury.
Prior to the new recommendations in 2017, people were first diagnosed with high blood pressure They had measurements of 140/90 or more.
Not all physicians treat patients who use the new, more aggressive blood pressure target, partly because they are worried that long-term use of drugs to lower blood pressure may have side effects such as diarrhea or constipation, dizziness, tiredness, headache, nausea or vomiting or mental disorders.
While young adults with high blood pressure should consider the potential for drug side effects, they can control their blood pressure with lifestyle changes such as eating better or more sports, and they should discuss these options with their doctor, the senior author said Korean study, Dr. Sang-min Park of Seoul Nati onal University Hospital.
"We have shown that hypertension can be associated with a higher risk of heart attack or stroke at an early age," Park said by email. "That's why young adults with high blood pressure should monitor their blood pressure regularly and control their blood pressure through lifestyle changes or medication."
Lifestyle changes are beneficial not only for lowering blood pressure and risk for cardiovascular disease, but this could also lead to improved physical and mental health.
None of the studies examined whether aggressive blood pressure treatment could prevent people from developing or dying from heart disease.
However, the results still suggest that blood pressure is being treated more aggressively. At a younger age, the risk of premature heart problems could be minimized later in life, said lead author of the US-based study, Drs. Yuichiro Yano from Duke University.
"Our study is one of the first to report that people younger than age 40 who have high blood pressure or high blood pressure are at increased risk of heart failure, strokes, and blood vessel blockages as they age," Yano said. Mail