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How climate change is causing devastation in the middle of the US



In the Midwest, it is now so brutally cold, with temperatures below zero days, schools and shops are closed, postal carriers are not delivering mail, firefighters in transit are firing to keep trains running, and people are dying ,

The "polar vortex" blows cold air around the North Pole into the middle of the country. These US-bound Arctic explosions have become more prevalent in recent decades and some scientists say that global warming is to blame.

Although this climate move is still under discussion, it is undeniable that climate change in the coming years and decades is undeniable harm much of the domestic United States. Sea levels and cyclones may attract the most attention, but a warming planet will affect the entire country, from the south across the Great Plains to the Midwest. There are fires, floods, heat waves, beetle outbreaks, changes in snowmelt and harvest failures, which could lead to losses of billions of euros by 21

00.

"Too many people see climate change as a coastal problem," said Julie Cerqueira, executive director of the US Climate Alliance, a governor-led group that responds to the climate crisis. "And we forget that droughts, heavy floods, forest fires – these are all issues that the rest of the country is facing."

"The effects of sea-level rise are so clear and purposeful," said climate change ecologist Kimberly at the Nature Conservancy and an author on the Midwest chapter in the 2018 National Climate Assessment, Buzzfeed News said. "It's much harder to find a driver for the effects in the Midwest because so many things interact with each other."

The effects range from shifting plant and animal ranges to longer pollen season and even cross-country skiing races canceled due to lack of snow , However, scientists say that one of the most important and striking effects in the Midwest is the increase in rainfall, especially heavy rainfall.

"One of the major trends in the Midwest has been the rise of heavy rainfall and associated floods," especially in the spring and summer, said Kenneth Kunkel, a research professor at North Carolina State University and another author of the National Climate Assessment.

The uptrend in heavy rain is not a unique trend in the Midwest, but it is particularly pronounced there. According to the latest National Climate Assessment, the amount of rain that has been falling in the Midwest in the Midwest since 1991 is more than 30% above the average of 1901-1960, and the only other region experiencing more dramatic changes the northeast. [19659002] If the soil gets too wet and muddy in the spring, the farmers delay the cultivation. Rain can also wash out soils in agricultural holdings and leach outflows filled with nutrients and chemicals into lakes. One way in which farmers minimize runoff is to sprinkle grain with strips of natural prairie vegetation, said Kunkel, who stays year-round and can effectively "catch" uncontrolled soils.

In addition to agricultural problems, cities are flooding the city, polluting drinking water and damaging buildings. "As with many of the impacts of climate change, this is not necessarily the effect itself, but the interaction between the impacts and changes we've already made in the landscape," Hall said. Researchers estimate that the cost of modernizing urban rainwater systems in the Midwest could exceed $ 2,100,500 million.

And just as the rains in the US are widespread, the whole country has warmed up – and some of the hardest hit regions are landlocked. The most dramatic warming to date has occurred in Alaska, the northwest, the southwest, and the northern Great Plains. So it was so hot in July 2017 in Arizona that some flights at Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport were canceled.

The combination of increased warming and arid conditions has helped further forest fires and the spread of forest fires have been intensified to kill bark beetles in the Colorado forests, according to Thomas Veblen, a respected geography professor at the University of Colorado Boulder. The warming also changes the snowpack in a way that, if continued as planned in the future, could result in less water flowing through the Colorado River Basin.

Future warming projections are particularly dangerous for the Midwest. Take the city of Chicago. In a moderately warming scenario, the city could see over 100 degrees Fahrenheit for up to 23 days a year by the end of the century. In a much warmer scenario, the city could see more than 60 days or about two months a year by the end of the century. "This is something you will see over and over again with climate change," said Brenda Ekwurzel, director of the Union of Concerned Scientists Climate and Energy Program, to BuzzFeed News. "The worst-case scenario is far worse than if we abbreviate these averages." Possible future effects.

More warming, which can lead to more frequent or damaging heat waves and droughts, can also affect crop production. The Midwest is an agricultural center, because good soil can absorb a lot of water so that it can survive dry periods. During a serious drought, these soils will lose water, Kunkel said, and it is feared that this exhaustion will be quicker, as more water evaporates at higher temperatures.

In parts of the Midwest, rainfall changes According to Kunkel, the temperature could have some positive effects, such as prolonging the vegetation period of certain crops. A 2017 study projecting future impacts on the economic climate has shown that many northern states are on track to experience more benefits than problems by the end of the century.

So: extreme rain, extreme heat and possibly extreme cold. In the last two days, temperatures have dropped due to the polar vortex in Chicago -56 degrees Fahrenheit in Cotton, Minnesota and -31 degrees Fahrenheit in Detroit . Although polar whirlwind visits are not new in the US, they have become more common in recent decades. One theory that resonates among climate scientists is that sea ice melting disturbs the Arctic's normal airflow pattern.

"Ironically, despite global warming, you have some really cold Midwestern days," said a new analysis from the Washington, DC nonprofit organization, the Brookings Institution, that the 15 most affected by climate change States – including Arkansas, Oklahoma, Arizona, and other landlocked countries – had voted 14 for President Trump, who does not believe in humans – climate change.

"Democratically inclined districts will suffer less in the future than republican ones," Mark Muro, Senior Fellow and Policy Director of the Brookings Metropolitan Policy Program. "In that sense, the republican districts are voting against interests in terms of climate damage." (That is, a wave of Democratic governors has just been voted into the Midwest, and even some Republicans are beginning to talk about climate action.)


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