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How the big bang ignites – solve a mystery of the origin of the universe



  Development of a turbulent flame and transition to a detonation

Development of a turbulent flame and transition to a detonation in a methane-air mixture. Photo credits: Alexei Y. Poludnenko, Jessica Chambers, Kareem Ahmed, Vadim N. Gamezo, Brian D. Taylor, Rendering of the Department of Defense's Data Analysis and Assessment Center

University of Florida researchers discover mechanisms for the cause of the Big Bang.

Knowing the criteria for the explosion of the Big Bang is the key to models that scientists use to understand the origin of the universe.

The origin of the universe began with The Big Bang, but how the supernova explosion was ignited was a mystery for a long time – until now.

In a new article that appeared today (November 1, 2019) in the journal Science researchers explained the mechanisms that could cause the explosion that is the key to the models with which Scientists understand the origin of the universe.

"We have defined the critical criteria by which we can propel a flame to create its own turbulence, accelerate and detonate," says Kareem Ahmed, assistant professor at UCF's Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Co-author of the study.

"We use the turbulence to improve the mixing of reactions, the point at which it goes into this violent reaction, essentially leading to supernovas that explode stars in simple terms," ​​says Ahmed. "We bring a simplified flame where it reacts at five times the speed of sound."

The researchers discovered the criteria for generating a Big Bang explosion while investigating methods for ultrasonic jet propulsion.

  Jessica Chambers and Kareem Ahmed, University of Central Florida

Jessica Chambers, Ph.D. student at the Faculty of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Central Florida, and Kareem Ahmed, Assistant Professor, Faculty of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering the UCF set up the turbulence They used a shock tube to uncover the mechanisms that could have caused the big bang. Credit: Karen Norum, UCF Office of Research

"We are studying these supersonic reactions to propulsion and, as a result, we came across this mechanism, which looked very interesting," he said. "When we started digging deeper, we discovered that this was related to something as deep as the origin of the universe."

The key is to add the right amount of turbulence to an unrestricted flame and mix it until she perpetuates herself. At this point, the flame begins to burn up the absorbed energy, causing a Mach 5 supersonic supersonic explosion.

Applications for the discovery could be faster aerospace and improved energy production, including emission-free reactions Products used in combustion are converted into energy. The discovery was made with a unique turbulent impact tube that allowed explosions to be generated and analyzed in a closed environment. Ultrahigh-speed lasers and cameras were used to measure the explosions and to indicate what factors were needed to reach the point where a flame would become a hyper-sonic, violent reaction.

The UCF Propulsion and Energy Research Laboratory where the research was conducted

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Reference: "A unified mechanism for the unrestricted transition from deflagration to detonation in terrestrial chemical systems and supernovae of the type Ia "by Alexei Y. Poludnenko, Jessica Chambers, Kareem Ahmed, Vadim N. Gamezo and Brian D. Taylor, November 1, 2019, Science .
DOI: 10.1126 / science.aau7365

Co-authors of the study Alexei Y. Poludnenko, associate professor at the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering of the University of Connecticut and lead author of the study; Jessica Chambers, PhD student, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Aerospace, UCF; Vadim N. Gamezo, with the Naval Research Laboratory; and Brian D. Taylor of the Air Force Research Laboratory.

The research was funded by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research. Computer resources were provided by the US Department of Defense as part of the High Performance Computer Modernization Program under the Frontier Project Award and the Naval Research Laboratory.

Ahmed holds a PhD in Mechanical Engineering from the University of Buffalo. – The State University of New York. He worked at Pratt & Whitney Military Engines and Old Dominion University before moving to the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering (UCF) at the College of Engineering and Computer Science in 2015. He is a faculty member of the Center for Advanced Turbomachinery and Energy Research, Associate Fellow of the American Aerospace Center, AFRL Faculty Research Fellow and member of the UCF Energy Conversion and Propulsion Cluster.


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