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Home / Science / Is a "phantom universe" hidden in the cosmic microwave background? A trio of physicists think there is

Is a "phantom universe" hidden in the cosmic microwave background? A trio of physicists think there is



Posted on August 26, 2018

In the art world, there is a term called pentimento, which means a change, an overlay on a painting that bears evidence of an earlier work. Similarly, British physicist and former Stephen Hawking colleague Sir Roger Penrose and his team argue that extinct universes exist filled with hidden black holes embedded in the map of the cosmic microwave background. The spots in the cosmic microwave background (CMB), according to Physics World, could have been formed by black holes that evaporated before the big bang. A trio of scientists led by mathematical physicist Roger Penrose say in a paper that presents new evidence that our universe is only one step in a potentially infinite cycle of cosmic extinction and rebirth. However, other researchers remain skeptical that the microwave background actually contains characters from an earlier "aeon".

According to Standard Cosmology, shortly after the Big Bang, the universe experienced a very short but extremely intense expansion. This period of "inflation" would have ironed out any irregularities in the structure of the early universe, leading to the very uniform cosmos we observe around us.

However, Pensen, who is based at the University of Oxford, has developed a competing theory known as "Compliant Cyclic Cosmology" (CCC), which postulates that the universe became unified before the Big Bang and not after the Big Bang. The idea is that the universe changes from one eon to the next, starting every time infinitely small and ultra-smooth, before it spreads out and creates lumps of matter. This matter is eventually absorbed by supermassive black holes, which disappear in the very long term due to the continued emission of Hawking radiation. This process restores unity and sets the stage for the next big bang.

Penrose and two colleagues ̵

1; Daniel An from SUNY Maritime College in the US and Krzysztof Meissner at the University of Warsaw in Poland – report that CMB data has been scanned by the European side Space Agency Planck satellite for hotspots of different Size and analyzes how fast the microwave temperature around them drops, compared to spots in 1000 simulated maps of the CMB. They found that in and around small patches, not a single simulated map had higher temperature gradients than the real cosm – the temperature variations being an order of magnitude higher than the CMB average in the latter case.

All black holes theoretically break up a universe of gravitons and photons that do not experience space and time, as we know it, because they have no mass and travel at the speed of light. Penrose describes a universe without black holes, which will reflect the extreme compression of our universe when the Big Bang exploded. There are no things like distance or time at that moment, but there is something that even this violent outburst can not erase.

"It's not the singularity of the black hole, but the entire Hawking radiation of the hole in its history." Penrose told Live Science. For any positive graviton or photon released from the surface of the black hole event horizon into space, a negative particle (meaning negative mass and energy) falls back to the point where there is no return over the event horizon. Negative particles pick up mass and energy that was previously devoured by this black hole.

This phenomenon of positive particles radiating out of a black hole and being replaced by negative particles and slowly eating away the cosmic monster is Hawking radiation. Hawking radiation reduces the mass and energy of black holes and is also known as black hole evaporation. It is expected that black holes that do not gain mass by other means will shrink and eventually disappear.

What Penrose and his team observed in the CMB data were not actual remnants of the black holes that disappeared billions and billions years ago of evidence of their existence and the past life of the universe. Aeons that are wasted by Hawking radiation leave traces in the background frequencies of cosmic rays. Whatever it left behind has long since decayed, but its actual existence can be proven.

Trying to detect these imprints in the opaque CMB radiation precluded possible false positives and was obviously much more careful than just confirming the existence of an Earthly Fossil, the conclusion was ultimately the spectrum of Hawking radiation, which had been left behind by the extinct black holes of an earlier universe.

The Daily Galaxy on Physics World and Live Science

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