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Katherine Johnson struggled to get credit for her work




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Katherine Johnson spent 38 years at NASA. NASA

In the late 1

950s and early 1960s, everyone at the Langley Space Flight Research Center knew it NASA Computer Katherine Johnson was absolutely brilliant in complex mathematical calculations. In 1962, astronaut John Glenn insisted that Johnson, who was celebrating his 100th birthday on August 28, 2018, should re-examine the digital computer's calculations before his flight. 19659003] "If she says they're good, then I'm ready to go," Glenn said.

But even if the astronaut engineers in Langley recognized Johnson's mathematical prowess, they were in no hurry to credit her or her colleagues The rest of the world looked around 1960. No woman at NASA had ever included her name in a report.

This year, Johnson and engineer Ted Skopinski worked on it Equations to launch, track, and maneuver a spacecraft on one Orbital flight that would end The spacecraft lands at a certain position. The equations in this report – which were mostly Johnson's equations – provided the mathematical backbone for America's first space flight in May 1961 and America's first orbital mission in February 1962. It was a significant work.

And it was a significant thing to get credit, especially for a colored woman in 1960 whose employer nominally split the workforce in 1958, but whose superior, Henry Pearson, was "not a fan of women." as Johnson put it. In September 1960, Pearson urged Johnson's co-author Skopinski to finish the report and put his name on it before leaving for a planned trip to Houston.

When Johnson later recalled, "Finally, Ted told him," Katherine should end the report, she did most of the work anyway. So Ted Pearson left no other choice, I finished the report, and my name went on, and this was the first time that a woman in our department bore her name. "But it was not the last, Johnson would continue to put her name in her 25 other reports and papers in her rightful place before retiring, and she had opened a door for her female colleagues."

Two Things came with it.First, Johnson was brilliant at her job, had done the job, and insisted she was due, just as she had insisted she had been in a technical classroom before. Breaking through this institutional barrier has received support from a colleague, Skopinski, who has taken a position of relative power and privilege, and the story takes place decades later, amid ongoing struggles, the remaining barriers to under-represented groups in science, technology, engineering and mathematics

You can still read the report that puts a man into orbit Eighth and the female NASA employee gave the chance of recognition for their own work: NASA Technical Note 2-33, "Determining the azimuth angles at burnout for placing a satellite over a selected position on Earth." It's dense reading, and parts of it are hardly understandable if you are not an engineer or physicist, but it is a piece of history – and it has Katherine Johnson's name on the first page.

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Katherine Johnson spent 38 years at NASA NASA

In the late 1950s and early 1960s, everyone at NASA's Langley Space Flight Research Center knew that computer Katherine Johnson was absolutely brilliant in complex In 1962, the astronaut John Glenn, known as Johnson, who celebrated his 100th birthday on August 28, 2018, checks the calculations of the digital computer before his flight.

"If she says that they are good, then I'm ready to go, "Glenn said.) But even if the astronaut engineers in Langley recognized Johnson's mathematical prowess, they were in no hurry to pay tribute to her or her peers when the rest of the world was searching. But in 1960, no woman at NASA had her name in a report. [19659003] This year, Johnson and engineer Ted Skopinski were working on equations to create a spaceflight to launch, track and maneuver on an orbital flight that would end with the spaceship landing at a certain position. The equations in this report – which were largely Johnson's equations – provided the mathematical backbone for America's first space flight in May 1961 and America's first orbital mission in February 1962. It was a significant piece of work.

And it was a significant particular for a 1960s colored woman whose employer had nominally deposed the workforce in 1958, but whose supervisor Henry Pearson was "not a fan of women," as Johnson put it. In September 1960, Pearson urged Johnson's co-author Skopinski to finish the report and put his name on it before leaving for a planned trip to Houston.

When Johnson later recalled, "Finally, Ted told him," Katherine should end the report, she did most of the work anyway. So Ted Pearson left no other choice, I finished the report, and my name went on, and this was the first time that a woman in our department bore her name. "But it was not the last, Johnson would put her name in her rightful place in 25 other reports and papers before she retired, and she'd opened a door for her female colleagues."

Two things brought that along First, Johnson was brilliant at her job, had done the job, and insisted she was due, just as she had insisted she had been on site in a technical briefing before, but her efforts, this institutional barrier Skopinski, who took a position of relative power and privilege, and the story takes place decades later, in the midst of ongoing struggles to break the remaining barriers for under-represented groups in science, technology, engineering and mathematics. 19659003] One can still read the report that brought a man into orbit and the female NASA's staff member gave the chance for their own work: NASA Technical Note 2-33, "Determining Burnout Azimuth Angles for Placing a Satellite Over a Selected Position on the Earth." It's dense reading, and parts of it are hardly understandable if you're not an engineer or a physicist, but it's a piece of history – and it has Katherine Johnson's name on the front page.


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