NEW YORK (AP) – One hamburger a week, but not more – that's about as much red meat as people should eat to do the best for their health and the planet, according to a report, who wants to feed the world. 19659002] Eggs should be restricted to less than four per week, the report said. Dairy products should be about one serving a day or less.
The report of a group of experts on nutrition, agriculture and the environment recommends a plant-based diet that is based on previously published studies in which red meat was associated with an increased health risk problems. There are also recent studies of how eating habits affect the environment. The production of red meat takes land and food to breed livestock, which also emits the greenhouse gas methane.
John Ioannidis, Stanford University's Department of Disease Prevention, said he welcomed growing attention for how nutrition impacts the environment The report's recommendations do not reflect the degree of scientific uncertainty about diet and health.
"The evidence is not as strong as it seems," said Ioannidis.
The report was organized by EAT, a Stockholm-based non-profit organization, to improve the food system, and was released Wednesday by the medical journal Lancet. The expert panel that wrote it says that "Great Food Transformation" is urgently needed by 2050 and that the optimal diet they outline is flexible enough to adapt to food cultures around the world.
Overall, the diet promotes whole grains, beans, fruits and most vegetables, and limits the addition of sugars, refined grains such as white rice and starches such as potatoes and cassava. It is said that red meat consumption on average has to be cut by half worldwide on average, although the changes required vary from region to region and should be more dramatic in richer countries such as the United States.
Convincing people to restrict meat, cheese and eggs However, it will not be easy, especially in places where these foods are an important part of the culture.
In Sao Paulo, Brazil, the systems analyst Cleberson Bernardes said he left a grill restaurant that would be "ridiculous" for one serving of red meat a week. In Berlin, artisan Erik Langguth said there were better ways to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and dismissed the suggestion that the world needs meat.
"I have no meat, it's not a real meal," said Langguth, who is from a region known for his sausage sausages.
Before focusing solely on the environmental impact, the report sought to find what was the healthiest diet for humans would look like, said Walter Willett, one of its authors and nutrition researchers at Harvard University. While eggs are no longer considered to be at increased risk for heart disease, Willett's report recommends restricting them as studies suggest that having breakfast with whole grains, nuts and fruits would be healthier.
He said that not everyone has to become a vegan and many already limit how much meat they eat.
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is not new and is linked to its saturated fat content, which is also present in cheese, milk, nuts and packaged foods with coconut and palm kernel oil. The report notes that most of the food and health evidence comes from Europe and the United States. In Asian countries, extensive analysis has shown that poultry meat and red meat (mainly pork) have been associated with improved life expectancy. This could be partly because people in these countries may be eating smaller amounts of meat, the report says.
Stanford's Ioannidis found that nutrition research is often based on observational links between diet and health and that some associations of the past have not been confirmed. For example, it is no longer assumed that dietary cholesterol is highly related to blood cholesterol.
The meat and dairy industry also denies the report's recommendations, saying that their products provide essential nutrients and could be part of a healthy diet.
Andrew Mente, nutritional epidemiology researcher at McMaster University, urged caution before providing widespread nutritional recommendations that he said could have unintended consequences.
However, the authors of the EAT Lancet report claim that the overall body of evidence strongly supports the reduction of red meat health and conversion to plant-based nutrition. They point out that the recommendations are in line with US dietary guidelines, which aim to limit saturated fat to 10 percent of calories.
In some poorer areas, people may benefit from getting more nutrients in meat and dairy products, the report says. You should not go the way of the richer countries in terms of the amount of food they eat in the years to come. follow.
Although estimates vary, a United Nations report said that livestock accounts for about 15 percent of global natural gas emissions The climate.
Robbie Andrew, a senior researcher at the CICERO Center for International Climate Research in Norway, said agricultural practices that help animals grow faster could help limit emissions. But he said cows and other ruminants still produce a lot of methane, a powerful greenhouse gas.
"It is very difficult to combat these natural emissions that are part of their biology," said Andrew.
The environmental benefits depend on what people eat in their place. Chickens and pork produce far fewer emissions than beef, Andrew added, adding that plants are generally among the smallest carbon footprints.
Brent Loken, an author of the EAT Lancet report, said the report contained the parameters of an Optimum Diet, but acknowledged the challenge of finding out how to work with policy makers, food companies, and others to bring them together in different ways Adapt and implement regions.
AP reporters Frank Jordans in Berlin and Stan Lehman in Sao Paulo, Brazil contributed to this article.
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