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Map of Mars: The geology of the Red Planet



Watch the high-resolution version of this incredible map by clicking here.

For centuries, Mars has been mythically defined by its distinctive red appearance.

In Babylonian astronomy, Mars was named after Nergal . , the deity of fire, war and destruction. In Chinese and Japanese texts, the planet was known as 火星, the Firestar .

Although this unique reddish hue has been an essential feature of Martian culture for centuries, today we know that this is the case. The iron oxide soil of the Martian landscape that makes it the "Red Planet" – and Mars on closer inspection gives much more than just its color.

Above shows today's map, posted and created by Reddit user / hellofromthemoon, the data from centuries of observation and the numerous missions to the Red Planet to map its geology on a large scale.

A red dot in the sky

Egyptian astronomers observed the planet Mars for the first time four thousand years ago and called it "Horus the Red". Babylonian astronomers drew their course through the night sky to track the passage of time. But it was not until 1

610, when Galileo Galilei saw Mars through a telescope with his own eyes, that Mars was revealed as a completely different world.

Over the centuries, a number of astronomers using the improving technology have been watching and charting everything from polar icecaps to yellow clouds and white and dark spots that indicate different heights on the Martian surface. Some of Mars' earliest maps date back to 1831, but you can only observe so much from the surface of the earth.

On July 14, 1965, NASA successfully obtained the first close-up of Mars from the Mariner 4 spacecraft, which was located within 9,844 kilometers of the Martian surface. Mariner 4 took the picture of a large old crater and confirmed the existence of a thin atmosphere, mostly carbon dioxide.

Since then, four space agencies have made it to Mars successfully: NASA, the Soviet Union's former space program, the European Space Agency and the Indian Space Research Organization. From orbital satellites to surface exploration with robots, every successful mission has returned important data to develop a developing image of the planet.

Here is a complete list of successful and failed missions to Mars.

Mars Geology

On Mars, we see volcanoes, canyons and impact basins, similar to those on Earth. The yellows scattered on the map indicate meteorite impacts of varying sizes, while the red stripes indicate volcanoes and the associated lava flows. The different hues of brown indicate the highlands and the midlands with craters that make up most of the southern hemisphere.

The planet appears asymmetrical. Most of the southern hemisphere is crater-like and resembles the highlands of the moon. In contrast, the northern hemisphere is thinly cratered and has many large volcanoes.

Mars is about half the size of Earth, but both planets have the same amount of dry land. This is because the current surface of Mars does not contain any liquid water.

Mars and Earth are very different planets in terms of temperature, size, and atmosphere, but the geological processes on the two planets are eerily similar. The sheer size of some landforms on Mars would overshadow similar features on Earth due to the lack of water erosion. This lack of erosion has preserved billions of years old geological features.

The highest mountain on Mars and in the solar system is Olympus Mons, two and a half times higher than the mountain. Everest. A Mars Canyon system called Valles Marineris stretches across the Americas and is three times deeper than the Grand Canyon.

Mars Colony: Location, Location, Location

The first step to building a colony is to find out where the best chances of survival are. For Mars, some researchers have identified the poles of the planet, which contain thousands of years of ice deposits. It is believed that these contain large amounts of ice, which Mars settlers could extract and turn into liquid water.

The poles also contain other natural resources such as carbon dioxide, iron, aluminum, silicon and sulfur, which could be used to make glass, bricks and plastic. In addition, the planet's atmosphere contains enough hydrogen and methanol for fuel.

Closing the Distance

The above map represents the culmination of centuries of work that we fortunately can display here on a computer that is conveniently available to us online and wonder what life is like on the surface of Mars.

Who knows what further explorations will reveal?

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