While Artemis' deadline for 2024 is controversial (more on that later), NASA has long been planning to return to the Moon. There are several reasons for this: First, there is science and research. And second, we need to learn how to operate in outer space orbit. The moon offers the perfect opportunity to do just that.
"There is definitely a scientific reason to return to the moon," said Emily Lakdawalla, planetary scientist and senior editor at the Planetary Society. "For the same reasons, we would go to the Moon that we first researched, the Moon was formed out of the Earth, was related to Earth from the beginning, and has experienced everything in outer space that the Earth has, except because it is not Has." She has been geologically active for a long time and has preserved the evidence of the environment in which Earth has been formed, as well as any asteroid impacts and other events she has experienced. "We also know more about the moon than we did fifty years ago, and we can call samples more strategically than during the Apollo era."
But it's more than that, Lakdawalla Engadget explained.We now know that the Moon has volatiles like water These are scientifically interesting, but also crucial for exploration and possible colonization. "One very popular idea for permanent lunar habitation is to set up an outpost on the polar crater rim which is almost always exposed to sunlight, and then gaining resources in a permanently shaded crater where there are these bright elements ̵
How do we get there? This is the real problem and one that NASA has been working on for years.
The (second) first To reach Moon Landing by 2024, four technical elements must be brought together, the first is the spacecraft Orion, which will carry the astronauts to and from the moon, the second is the Lunar Gateway, a small spaceship that Orion will dock with a kind of space station will operate in a permanent orbit around the moon, but unlike the ISS, it will not be permanently occupied, but there will be an astronaut base and a Ba sis for the study of the moon. Third, there will be a lander to transport astronauts from the gateway to the lunar surface and back. And finally, you need the rocket that brings Orion from the surface to the gateway, the NASA Space Launch System (SLS).
It is worth noting that none of these parts is the same nor ready to use. NASA is currently commissioning the construction of the lander and gateway.
Orion is making steady progress. NASA has recently completed a successful spacecraft crash test. "The next milestone is Artemis 1, which should be 2020," said Nujoud Merancy. "It is also the first launch of the Rocket Space Launch System, this is the test flight of SLS and Orion and all related ground systems and MCC support systems, and this exploration mission, Artemis 1, will be 26 to 42 days, depending on the season."  This mission tests the integration of SLS, the Orion crew vehicle and service module, and ground systems to support the whole venture, which is quite a feat. "It's a massive test flight," said Mary Lynne Dittmar. "This is the largest rocket launched worldwide since the Saturn V. To integrate that and Orion's systems, integrate them and do this shakedown cruise, which is what must happen because you have to make sure the systems work. "This first unscrewed test flight is currently scheduled for the end of 2020. Given the massive development delays for SLS, it is very likely to expire by early 2021.
This also assumes that SLS is the rocket for which SLS is deployed the lunar missions. While this is indeed the current plan, NASA Administrator Jim Bridenstine has admitted that, given the cost overruns and the timeline, they may be examining Artemis 1 (originally called EM-1) on a commercial missile to meet the timetable.
This was followed by Artemis 2, the first test flight with crew from SLS and Orion. According to Dittmar, this must be done "by 2022 or early 2023" so that a 2024 lunar landing mission can be carried out. "
Merancy explained that there is more to fear than just Orion and SLS." They must start all the parts – Gateway and the lander, they would be on commercial flights, "she continued, starting in 2022 and must be completed and "And then you would actually have Artemis 3, a lunar landing mission in 2024," concluded Merancy.
There are many moving parts, and this ambitious schedule assumes that every part of it runs smoothly Dittmar reminded us that not a single human-valued spaceship or rocket has ever been delivered less than two years behind schedule, so the question is whether this accelerated timeline is actually feasible. " The timeline is very aggressive, "Merancy Engadget confirmed." I think it's possible, but it all depends on how fast you start gt. "