Astrophysicists have found indirect evidence for the formation of black holes, which, if confirmed, could improve our understanding of these stellar phenomena.
A publication by researchers Shantanu Basu and Arpan in Astrophysical Journal Letters That from the University of Western Ontario provides evidence that supermassive black holes can emerge without a very large star imploding. Rather, the study states that some supermassive black holes grow very fast in a very short time and then suddenly stop growing. The new model provides scientists with an explanation of how black holes formed in the early stages of our universe.
"This is indirect evidence that black holes are from direct collapses rather than star remnants," said Basu, an astronomy professor at the University of Western Ontario, in a press release.
Most of the black holes we know come into being in the heart of very large stars, many masses larger than our Sun. By definition, stars merge smaller atomic nuclei into heavier ones in processes that successively generate larger and heavier nuclei within the star. Finally, in a sufficiently massive star with a very dense core, the gravitational force will overcome the other repulsive forces that separate the nuclei, resulting in a spontaneous collapse into a single point whose escape velocity is greater than the speed of light. Definition: a black hole.
Such collapses are usually accompanied by a massive explosion of the outer shell of the star of gas and dust. These explosions create nebulae that make up new stars and solar systems (including our own).
However, the existence of supermassive black holes, beyond ten or twenty times the mass of the sun, was a problem for astronomers. How did they form, if not from a single collapsing star? The scenario of "direct collapse," for which Basu and Das Prove, suggests that it is possible to plunge a large amount of interstellar gas and dust ( no star) spontaneously into an unbelievably large mass of black Hole ̵
The astronomer Ethan Siegel previously explained in a Forbes article the theoretical process of direct collapse:
A region of space collapses into stars, while a nearby region The universe has also gravitationally collapsed, but has no stars yet educated.
The stellar region radiates an intense amount of radiation, with photon pressure preventing the gas in the other cloud from fragmenting into potential stars.
The cloud itself continues to collapse, in a monolithic way. It emits energy (radiation), but without stars inside.
When a critical threshold is crossed, this huge mass, perhaps hundreds of thousands or even millions of our Sun, collapses directly to form a black hole.
From this massive, early seed, supermassive black holes can be easily gained through the physics of gravitation, fusion, accretion, and time.
"Super-sized black holes only had a short period of time where they could grow quickly and eventually their production stalled due to the radiation in the universe created by other black holes and stars," Basu said. "That's the direct collapse scenario."
Over the past decade, several supermassive black holes have been discovered that are a billion times the mass of the Sun. These supermassive black holes are believed to have appeared in our universe 800 million years after the Big Bang – comparatively quickly, assuming that galaxies did not form until 1 billion years after the Big Bang. These two facts seem to be related, as it is assumed that all galaxies in their center have a supermassive black hole around which the other objects are located in the orbit of the galaxy.
These black holes in the early universe have challenged our understanding of their formation and growth in the universe. In March, astronomers announced that they had discovered 83 new supermassive black holes in the early Universe, representing a time when the Universe was less than 2 billion years old.
It has been a great year for black hole research. On April 10, the Event Horizon Telescope Collaboration (EHT) presented the first direct image of a black hole. The blurry composite embodies over two centuries of advances in math, science and electronics. Before the picture, only artistic illustrations were available to represent the mysterious singularities that distort the space-time continuum due to their large mass and create such a gravitational force that not even light can escape.