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The over-prescription of opioids is on the decline, but the number of deaths continues to rise, says dr. Marc Fishman of the Maryland Treatment Centers. He speaks with USA TODAY editorial site editor Bill Sternberg about addiction, treatment and robbery.
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Nearly 9,000 children and adolescents died of opioid poisoning between 1999 and 2016, and the number of annual deaths increased threefold over the course of 18 years , reported a research team from Yale University on Friday.

The finding suggests that the opioid epidemic is likely to continue unless legislators, public health officials, doctors and parents do more to keep the drugs out of adolescents.

Over 80 percent of those affected Children and adolescents died accidentally, researchers said in the Journal of the American Medical Association. Five percent came from suicide and about two percent from murder.

Almost a quarter of children under 5 and 35 percent of children under the age of 1 were murder victims.

Heroin was the cause of death for 24 deaths aged 15 to 19 for 24 years. Between 2014 and 2016, synthetic opioids killed nearly one-third of all prescribed and illegal opioid deaths in older adolescents.

Yale researchers found that methadone was associated with 36 percent of child deaths. In many cases, parents or other adults in the children's life use methadone to treat pain or to treat addiction.

The risk of children abusing other people's methadone is "particularly relevant," the researchers write as more and more people with opioid dysfunction receive medication as part of their treatment. This means that in the next few years more children will be exposed to methadone and buprenorphine if no "other safety precautions" are taken.

However, the mortality rate for methadone reached a peak in 2007 and has been declining since then. In 2006, the Food and Drug Administration issued a public health consultation warning doctors about the use of methadone in pain.

Dr. Marc Fishman is an addiction psychiatrist and professor at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, which treats adolescents and young adults with opiate use disorders.

He says the results are alarming as deaths in children and adolescents increase in the same way as they do for adults – they start taking pills, apply heroin and die of the synthetic painkiller fentanyl.

Young people are also less likely to seek treatment than adults, says Fishman, making it harder to track the use of adolescents with opioids.

The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends physicians prescribe drug-based teenage opioid treatments.

"Even though we better treat patients with medications, it is a wake-up call to be as careful with these medications as others," says Fishman.

Jada Walker, a Kentucky-born woman who used methadone to treat opioid addiction, told USA TODAY Network in 2016 that she kept her methadone in a locker so it was safe from her young children. Fishman says that's exactly what patients need to do when using drug-based treatments.

The numbers show some encouraging signs. The National Institute for Drug Abuse reported this month that the abuse of adolescent opioids in the 43-year history of Monitoring the Future has fallen to a record low.

The use of prescription opioids and narcotics other than heroin last year is 3.4 percent among 12-year-olds, a significant decline of 4.2 percent in 2017.

Last year was the first year in which the Youth Risk Behavior Survey of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention contained a question about the abuse of prescription opioids. Fourteen percent of US high school students, or nearly one in seven, reported abusing prescription opioids.

"With the unauthorized use of opioids, which is generally the lowest in the history of the survey, it is possible that attending high school will provide a protective measure against abuse and dependency Opioids, "said Dr. Nora Volkow, director of the National Institute for Drug Abuse. "We will focus much of our new prevention research on the period in which adolescents move from school to the adult world and are exposed to the dangerous use of these drugs."

Devin Reaves, 36, says his opiate addiction He began when he was 16 years old. He became addicted when he was prescribed an opioid for 30 days to overcome the pain by removing his wisdom teeth.

He says he has gone through the recipe in three days. When he realized how easy it was to get the drugs, he took the pills in the homes of friends and in the street. This led to heroin in college and an intervention by his mother and a drug counselor when he was 24 years old.

Reaves has been recovering for eleven years. He is now working with CDC's Rx awareness campaign to publicize safe prescription drug procedures, including preventing children from taking opioids.

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him to an almost ten-year addiction to opioids.
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Reaves says he reminds the customers that the opioid abuse of use is a brain disease and not a moral one To fail. When he goes to the doctor or dentist, he talks about his history of substance use and makes it clear that he does not want opioids.

Far fewer adolescents now get opioids.

Only 1.7 percent of high school graduates said they abused Vicodin last year, up from a peak of 10.5 percent 15 years ago. One of the 25012-year-old students reported using heroin last year.

Nearly 36 percent of all overdose deaths in the United States include a prescription opioid. Such deaths have increased about fivefold since 1999.

From 1999 to 2017, more than 200,000 people died from overdoses associated with prescription opioids. There were more than 17,000 deaths from prescription opioids in 2017.

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