We all know and love the Higgs boson – misnamed in the media as the "God Particle" – a subatomic particle first discovered in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in 2012 is part of a field known as the "God Particle" the entire space-time permeates; It interacts with many particles, like electrons and quarks, and gives these particles a mass that's pretty cool.
But the Higgs we discovered were surprisingly light. By our best estimates, it should have been a lot harder. This raises an interesting question: Sure, we discovered a Higgs boson, but was that the only Higgs boson? Is there more out there doing their own things?
Although we do not yet have evidence of a heavier Higgs, a research team at the LHC, the world's largest atomic destroyer, is exploring this issue. And there are rumors that if protons are beaten up inside the ring-shaped collider, violent Higgs and even Higgs particles consisting of different types of Higgs could come out of the hiding place. [Beyond Higgs: 5 Elusive Particles That May Lurk in the Universe]
If the heavy Higgs really exist, we need to reconfigure our understanding of the Standard Model of particle physics with the newly discovered finding that there is much more to the Higgs than the eye suggests. And within these complex interactions, there could be an indication of everything from the mass of ghostly neutrino particles to the ultimate fate of the universe.
All About The Boson
Without the Higgs boson, pretty much the entire standard model comes down. However, to talk about the Higgs boson, we must first understand how the standard model looks at the universe.
In our best idea of the subatomic world using the Standard Model, what we consider to be particles is not really very important. Instead, there are fields. These fields penetrate and take up the entire space and time. There is one field for each particle type. So there's a field for electrons, a field for photons, and so on and so forth. What you consider as particles are really local small vibrations in their respective areas. And when particles interact (by bouncing off one another, for example), it's really the vibrations in the fields that make a very complicated dance. [The 1
The Higgs boson has a special kind of field. Like the other fields, it permeates the entire space and the entire time and can also speak and play with the fields of everyone else.
But the Higgs field has two very important tasks that can not be done by any other field.
His first task is to talk to the W and Z bosons (via their respective fields), the carriers of the weak nuclear forces. By talking to these other bosons, the Higgs can give them mass and make sure they stay separate from the photons, the carriers of electromagnetic force. Without the disruption of the Higgs boson, all these carriers would be brought together and these two forces brought together.
The other task of the Higgs boson is to talk to other particles like electrons. Through these conversations, they also get mass. It all works very well because we have no other way to explain the masses of these particles.
Lightweight and Hard
All this was elaborated in the 1960s through a series of complicated but certainly elegant math, but there is only one tiny snag to the theory: there is no real way to measure the exact mass of To predict Higgs bosons. In other words, if you're looking for the particle in a particle collider (that's the small local vibration of the much larger field), you're not sure exactly what and where you'll find it. [The 11 Most Beautiful Mathematical Equations]
In 2012, scientists at the LHC announced the discovery of the Higgs boson after finding some of the particles that represent the Higgs field, when protons were intersected at near-light speed. These particles had a mass of 125 gigaelectron volts (GeV) or about the equivalent of 125 protons – so it's a bit heavy but not unbelievably large.
At first glance, everything sounds good. The physicists did not actually have a firm prediction of the mass of the Higgs boson, so it could be whatever it wanted to be; We found the mass randomly in the energy range of the LHC. Break out the bubbly and start celebrating. Apart from the fact that there are some hesitant predictions about the mass of the Higgs boson based on the way it interacts with another particle, the upper one, Quark. These calculations predict a number well above 125 GeV. It could be simple that these predictions are wrong, but then we have to go back to mathematics and find out where things go wrong. Or the mismatch between general predictions and the reality of what was found in the LHC could mean that the Higgs boson story contains more.
There might well be a whole plethora of Higgs bosons out there too heavy for our current generation of particle colliders. (The mass-energy thing goes back to Einstein's famous E = mc ^ 2 equation, which shows that energy is mass and mass energy.) The higher the mass of a particle, the more energy it has and the more energy it needs To generate this powerful particle thing.)
In fact, some speculative theories that extend our physical knowledge beyond the standard model predict the existence of these heavy Higgs bosons. Of course, the exact nature of these additional Higgs characters depends on the theory, ranging from one or two particularly heavy Higgs fields to even composite structures of several different types of Higgs bosons sticking to each other.
Theorists are hard at work trying to find a possible way to test these theories, since most of them are simply inaccessible to current experiments. In a recent article published by the Journal of High Energy Physics and published online in the Preprint Journal arXiv, a team of physicists has made a proposal to search for the existence of more Higgs bosons, based on the particular way in which the Particles could disintegrate into lighter, more recognizable particles such as electrons, neutrinos and photons. However, these decays are extremely rare, so while we can find them in principle with the LHC, we still have to look many years to gather enough data.
When it comes to serious Higgs, we just have to be patient.
Originally published on Live Science .