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Renal failure: causes, types and symptoms

Your kidneys are a pair of organs that are in the direction of the lower back. On each side of your spine is a kidney. They filter your blood and remove toxins from your body. Kidneys send toxins to your bladder, which your body later removes when urinating.

Kidney failure occurs when your kidneys lose the ability to adequately filter waste from their blood. Many factors can affect your kidney health and function, such as: B:

  • toxic exposure to environmental contaminants or certain medications
  • certain acute and chronic diseases
  • severe dehydration
  • renal trauma

Your body becomes overloaded with toxins when your kidneys can not do their normal work. This can lead to kidney failure, which can be life threatening if left untreated.

As a rule, some disease symptoms occur in a patient with kidney failure. Sometimes there are no symptoms. Symptoms include:

  • a decreased amount of urine
  • Swelling of your legs, ankles and feet due to fluid retention caused by failure of the kidneys in the elimination of water wastage
  • excessive respiratory distress.
  • drowsiness or fatigue
  • persistent nausea
  • confusion
  • pain or pressure in the breast
  • seizures
  • coma

Early signs of renal failure

Early symptoms of kidney disease may be difficult exact. They are often subtle and difficult to identify. If you notice early signs of kidney disease, they may include:

Renal failure may be the result of multiple diseases or causes. The cause typically also determines the nature of the kidney failure.

Most vulnerable individuals usually have one or more of the following causes:

Blood loss to the kidneys

A sudden loss of blood to the kidneys Your kidneys can cause kidney failure. Some disorders that affect blood flow to the kidneys are:

High blood pressure and anti-inflammatory drugs may also limit blood flow.

Urinary Excretion Problems

If your body can not excrete urine, toxins build up and overload your kidneys. Some cancers can block the urinary tract, e.g. B:

Other conditions may affect urination and may lead to kidney failure, such as: B.:

Other Causes

Some other things that can lead to kidney failure include: [1

9659003] a blood clot in or around your kidneys
  • an infection
  • an overload of heavy metal toxins
  • Drugs and Alcohol
  • Vasculitis, an inflammation of the blood vessels
  • Lupus, an autoimmune disease that can cause inflammation of many body organs
  • Glomerulonephritis, an inflammation of the small blood vessels of the kidneys
  • Hemolytic uremic syndrome that causes the degradation red blood cell after a bacterial infection, usually of the intestine
  • multiple myeloma, involves a cancer of plasma cells in your bone marrow
  • Scleroderma, an autoimmune disease that affects your skin
  • Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, a blood clot disorder that occurs in small numbers Veins causes Sels
  • chemotherapeutics to treat cancer and some autoimmune diseases
  • Dyes used in some imaging tests
  • Certain antibiotics
  • Uncontrolled diabetes
  • 5 types of renal failure

    There are five different types of renal failure:

    Acute renal failure

    Insufficient blood flow to the kidneys can lead to acute kidney failure. The kidneys can not filter toxins from the blood without adequate blood flow. This type of kidney failure can usually be cured if your doctor determines the cause of the decreased blood flow.

    Acute intrinsic renal failure

    Acute intrinsic renal failure may be due to direct kidney trauma, eg accident. Causes are also toxin overload and ischemia, which represents an oxygen deficiency of the kidneys.

    The following can lead to ischemia:

    Chronic renal failure before birth

    If insufficient blood flows into the kidneys for an extended period of time, the kidneys will shrink and lose their function. [19659047] Chronic intrinsic renal failure

    This happens when the kidneys are long term damaged due to intrinsic kidney disease. An intrinsic kidney disease is caused by a direct kidney trauma such as heavy bleeding or lack of oxygen.

    Chronic kidney failure after renal insufficiency

    Long-term obstruction of the urinary tract prevents urination. This leads to pressure and possible kidney damage.

    There are several tests that your doctor can use to diagnose kidney failure.


    Your doctor may take a urine sample to examine for abnormalities, including abnormal proteins or sugars that enter the urine.

    You can also do a urine sediment investigation. This test measures the amount of red and white blood cells, looks for bacteria and looks for a large number of tubular particles called cell casts.

    Urine volume measurements

    Measuring urine output is one of the simplest tests for diagnosing kidney failure. For example, low urine output may indicate that kidney disease is due to urinary blockage, which can cause multiple illnesses or injuries.

    Blood Samples

    Your doctor may order blood tests to measure substances filtered by your kidneys. such as blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (Cr). A rapid increase in these levels may indicate acute renal failure.


    Tests such as ultrasound, MRI and CT provide images of the kidneys themselves and the urinary tract. This will allow your doctor to look for blockages or abnormalities in your kidneys.

    Kidney tissue sample

    Tissue samples are examined for abnormal deposits, scars, or infectious organisms. Your doctor will perform a renal biopsy to extract the tissue sample. A biopsy is a simple procedure that is usually performed while you are awake.

    Your doctor will give you a local anesthetic so you will not feel any pain. Then insert a biopsy needle through your skin and into your kidney to remove the sample. X-ray or ultrasound machines locate the kidneys and help your doctor guide the needle.

    These tests help you determine if your kidneys are functioning properly. Other kidney function tests can also help your doctor determine what the symptoms are.

    Renal failure is divided into five stages. These range from very mild (stage 1) to complete kidney failure (stage 5). Symptoms and complications increase as the stages progress.

    Level 1

    This level is very mild. There may be no symptoms and no visible complications. Some damages are present.

    It is still possible to control and slow progression while maintaining a healthy lifestyle. This includes a balanced diet, regular exercise and abstinence from tobacco products. Keeping a healthy weight is also important.

    If you have diabetes, it's important to control your blood sugar.

    Stage 2

    Stage 2 of kidney disease is still considered to be a mild condition, however, detectable problems such as protein in the urine or physical damage to the kidneys may be more apparent.

    The same lifestyle approaches that helped in Level 1 are also used in Level 2. Talk to your doctor about other risk factors that could speed the progression of the disease. These include heart disease, inflammation and blood disorders.

    Stage 3

    At this stage, kidney disease is classified as moderate. Your kidneys are not working as well as they should.

    Stage 3 Kidney Disease is sometimes divided into 3A and 3B. In a blood test that measures the amount of waste in your body, a distinction is made between the two.

    At this stage, symptoms may become more pronounced. Swelling in the hands and feet, back pain and changes in urination are often to be expected.

    Lifestyle approaches can be helpful. Your doctor may also consider taking medications to treat underlying conditions that could accelerate your failure.

    Stage 4

    Stage 4 kidney disease is classified as moderate to severe. The kidneys are not working well, but you still do not have complete kidney failure. Symptoms may include complications such as anemia, high blood pressure and bone disease.

    A healthy lifestyle is still crucial. Your doctor is likely to charge you with treatments designed to slow the damage.

    Stage 5

    At Stage 5, your kidneys are nearing or have completely failed. Symptoms of loss of kidney function will be obvious. These include vomiting and nausea, difficulty breathing, itchy skin and more.

    At this stage, you need regular dialysis or a kidney transplant.

    There are several treatments for kidney failure. The type of treatment you need depends on the reason for your kidney failure.


    Dialysis filters and cleans the blood mechanically. The machine takes over the function of the kidneys. Depending on the type of dialysis, you may be connected to a large device or a portable catheter bag.

    You may need to eat low potassium and low salt together with dialysis.

    Dialysis does not cure kidney failure, but can prolong your life if you use regularly scheduled treatments.

    Kidney transplantation

    Another treatment option is a kidney transplant. A transplanted kidney can work normally and dialysis is no longer necessary.

    It usually takes a long time to get a donor kidney that is compatible with your body. If you have a live donor, the process may be faster.

    You need to take immunosuppressive medication after surgery to prevent your body from rejecting the new kidney. These medications have their own side effects, some of which are serious.

    Transplant surgery may not be the right treatment option for everyone. It is also possible that the operation will fail.

    Talk to your doctor about whether you are a good candidate for a kidney transplant.

    There is no special diet for people with kidney failure. The guidelines for what you eat often depend on the stage of your kidney disease and your individual health. Some recommendations might include:

    • Limit sodium and potassium. Keep an eye on how much of these two nutrients you absorb. Try to eat less than 2,000 milligrams per day.
    • Limit phosphorus. As with sodium and potassium, it is good to limit the amount of phosphorus you ingest in one day. Try to stay below 1,000 milligrams.
    • Obey the protein guidelines. You may want to reduce protein consumption in early and intermediate kidney disease. However, in end stage renal failure, you may be able to consume more protein, depending on your doctor's recommendations.

    In addition to these general guidelines, you may also be advised to avoid certain foods if you have kidney disease.

    The color of your urine is a small window on the health of your body. It does not tell you much about the condition of your kidney function until kidney damage has progressed.

    Urine color changes can still alert you to a few issues.

    • Clear or pale yellow. This color indicates that you are well hydrated. This is the ideal color in most cases.
    • Dark yellow or amber. You may be dehydrated. Try to drink more water and reduce dark sodas, tea or coffee.
    • Orange. This could be a sign of dehydration, or it could be a sign of bile in your bloodstream. Kidney disease usually does not cause this.
    • Pink or Red. Urine with a pinkish hue or something red might contain blood. It can also be caused by certain foods like beets or strawberries. A quick urine test can tell the difference.
    • Foaming. Urine with excess bladder is a sign that it probably contains a lot of protein. Protein in the urine is a sign of kidney disease.

    The color of urine may raise flags for potential problems. Find out about the most common causes of color problems and the most likely effects on the color of your pee.

    Diabetes is the leading cause of kidney failure. Uncontrolled high blood sugar can damage the kidneys. The damage can get worse over time.

    Diabetic nephropathy or kidney damage caused by type 1 or type 2 diabetes can not be reversed. Control of blood sugar and blood pressure can help reduce damage. Taking medications prescribed by your doctor is also important.

    If you have diabetes, your doctor is likely to conduct regular examinations to monitor kidney failure.

    Your risk of diabetic nephropathy increases the longer you live with the condition. Find out what other factors can increase your risk for this type of kidney disease.

    It is not possible to know exactly how long a person with kidney failure will live. Every person with kidney failure is different.

    In general, a person on dialysis may expect an average life of 5 to 10 years as long as they follow their treatment.

    Some factors that play a role in life expectancy are:

    • Age
    • Stage of kidney disease
    • Other concomitant conditions

    A middle-aged adolescent of kidney failure who has no complicating risk factors or others States will probably live longer than an older individual with stage 4 or 5 renal failure plus diabetes or cardiovascular disease.

    If you reach end stage renal failure, you will need to dialysis to live. The lack of a single treatment can lower your life expectancy.

    A kidney transplant is expected to take about 5 to 10 years. It is possible to get a second transplant after the first transplant failed.

    If you have kidney failure and drink alcohol, your kidneys are forced to work harder than they already are.

    Alcohol is not metabolized in your system, so you do not feel its effects until you receive dialysis to filter it out of your blood.

    Beer and wine contain large amounts of phosphorus. It can cause serious heart problems and even death if your kidneys are unable to filter them out. However, most schnapps are not associated with the same risk.

    If you have kidney failure or late-stage kidney disease, your doctor may recommend limiting the frequency of alcohol use. For some people, it is best to eliminate alcohol completely from the diet.

    Alcohol consumption with kidney failure may affect the normal function of other organs. Long-term, heavy drinking can lead to liver disease over time.

    Alcohol consumption can lead to additional symptoms such as pain. Find out how drinking alcohol causes back and flank pain.

    The prognosis or outlook for people with kidney failure depends on several factors. These include the underlying cause, the way in which this cause is treated, and complicating factors such as high blood pressure or diabetes. A healthy diet, restriction of kidney-damaging foods and treatment of the underlying issues can help to extend your health and life.

    You can take steps to reduce the risk of kidney failure.

    Follow the instructions when taking over-the-counter medications. Too high a dose (even of common drugs such as aspirin) can lead to high toxin levels in a short time. This can overload your kidneys.

    Many kidney or urinary tract disorders cause kidney failure if not treated properly. You can reduce your risk of kidney failure by:

    • maintaining a healthy lifestyle
    • following your doctor's instructions
    • taking prescribed medicines
    • and treating common causes of kidney failure such as high blood pressure and diabetes

    If you Be concerned about your kidneys, please consult your doctor.

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