The small West African nation Gambia has filed a lawsuit at the United Nations Supreme Court, in which Myanmar was formally charged with genocide against Rohingya Muslims.
It was filed with the International Court of Justice (ICJ), which usually decides disputes between states.
Last year, the United Nations published a damning account of the violence in Myanmar, calling for military leaders to be brought to trial for genocide.
Thousands of Rohingya were killed and more than 700,000 fled to neighboring Bangladesh during a military operation in the country of the Buddhist majority in 201
The United Nations Independent International Journey to Myanmar announced in August 2018 that the army's tactics had been adhered to "grossly out of proportion to actual security threats" and "military necessity would never justify indiscriminately killing women To attack children and burn down entire villages. "
Myanmar rejected the report. It has consistently stated that its operations were aimed at militant or insurgent threats.
Last year, prosecutors of the International Criminal Court (ICC) – which usually investigate allegations of war crimes unlike the International Criminal Court – initiated a preliminary investigation into alleged crimes against Myanmar by the Rohingya Muslim minority.
The fact that Myanmar has not joined the ICC makes the lawsuit more difficult and no charges have yet been made.
Why is the Gambia complaining?
Gambia filed a lawsuit on Monday with the International Court of Justice (IGH) in The Hague.
The majority-Muslim country is also supported by the 57-member Organization for Islamic Cooperation (OIC) and a team of international lawyers.
Both it and Myanmar are signatories to the Genocide Convention of 1948 and are committed to preventing and punishing the crime of genocide.
In his submission, Gambia called on the court to issue a restraining order to ensure that Myanmar's atrocities immediately "ended and genocide against its own Rohingya people".
Abubacarr M Tambadou, Attorney General and Minister of Justice of Gambia, has led the effort. Previously, he worked for the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, where he investigated the genocide of 1994.
Mr. Tambadou told the BBC last month that he was motivated to act after hearing stories about survivors' brutal killings, rape and torture while visiting a Rohingya refugee camp in Bangladesh.
Who are the Rohingya? The Rohingya are a Muslim ethnic minority in Myanmar. They have their own language and culture. They live mainly in the state of Rakhine, which borders Bangladesh.
Although they have lived in Myanmar for generations, they are not recognized as citizens or counted in the census. They are often painted by government officials as illegal immigrants and invaders from Bangladesh.
On August 25, 2017, Rohingya militants attacked dozens of police and killed several officers. Security forces evacuated and burned down entire villages and attacked, raped and killed civilians. UN investigators found her.
Hundreds of thousands fled to Bangladesh and joined many Rohingya who lived in camps that had fled earlier waves.
Attempts to repatriate Rohingya have failed so far. Refugees cited the lack of accountability for the atrocities committed and the uncertainty about their fate on their return.
In October, the United Nations warned that there was a danger of "serious re-emergence of genocide" against those still living in the country.
Earlier this year, the BBC found indications that entire Rohingya villages had been demolished and replaced by secure state facilities.