It has long been known that there are four "fundamental forces" that govern nature.
The substance of our universe is contracted or forced apart by these forces, which are determined by the fact that they do not seem to be due to more fundamental interactions between particles.
These include gravitational forces and electromagnetic forces Produce significant long-range interactions whose effects are directly visible in everyday life.
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And they also involve forces known as the strong and weak interactions that create forces in minute, subatomic intervals and that determine nuclear physics.
Over the years, there have been many unsubstantiated claims about the existence of a fifth fundamental force, and the long hunt for dark matter remains unsuccessful, and efforts to find new powers to fill in the gaps that do not explain the Standard Model of particle physics can, have increased.
Dark matter is a theoretical substance that is believed to make up about 85 percent of the total mass in the universe, but has not yet been recognized.
However, scientists from the Hungarian Atomic Nuclear Research Institute believe that they have found further solid evidence for a previously unknown fifth fundamental natural force.
Attila Krasznahorkay and his colleagues at Atomki reported in 2015 for the first time surprising results on the study of the light emitted during the radioactive decay of beryllium-8, an unstable isotope.
Since the discovery of beryllium-8 in the 1930s after the construction of Cambridge's first particle accelerator this unstable atom and its unique decomposition have been the focus of numerous studies on star nucleosynthesis – how nuclear fusion forms elements in stars.
In 2015 they found that when protons burned onto the isotope lithium-7 produces beryllium -8, the subsequent decay of the particles did not produce exactly the expected light emissions and a specific tiny "shock" occurred, which is unclear The reason is that the electrons and positrons that burst when the atom breaks down are often separated by exactly 140 degrees.
Various replicates in the same laboratory confirmed the results, and one year later the same experiment was repeated in America with the same results.
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It is believed that as the atom decays, surplus energy among its constituents briefly generates a new unknown particle, which then almost immediately turns into a recognizable particle Positron and electron disintegrate pair.
But we are not all about to turn from the inside out or flatten it into another dimension. It is believed that the unknown particle, called the "protophobic X boson," carries a force that acts over microscopic distances not much larger than those of an atomic nucleus.
A "boson" is a particle that can absorb forces.
The particle was designated X17 because its mass is calculated to be 17 megaelectrons volts.
Dr. stable helium atoms Instead of the electrons and positrons in the helium atoms, which separated at 140 degrees, the angle was closer to 115 degrees.
"This feature is similar to the anomaly observed in 8Be and appears to be consistent with the X17 boson decay scenario," writes the team in arXiv where the research has been published but has not been peer-reviewed.
Once the particle's existence is confirmed, physicists will have to rethink the interactions of the existing four fundamental forces of particle physics and make room for a fifth.
"We expect more independent experimental results for the X17 particle in the coming years," concludes the research team in his work.