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Scientists share new details about mysterious "ghost particles"



Neutrinos are called spooky because they are extremely volatile or vaporous cosmic particles that can penetrate any kind of matter without changing. They have almost no mass – but now scientists have calculated the mass of the lightest neutrino type.

You can move through the most extreme environments like stars, planets, and entire galaxies, staying the same. But neutrinos are high energy but have no charge. Not even the strongest magnetic field can influence it.

Last year scientists were able to reconstruct the origins of a high-energy, tiny neutrino for the first time. It traveled 3.7 billion light-years to Earth. It was found by sensors deep in Antarctic ice in the IceCube detector.

Scientists and observatories around the world have traced the neutrino to a galaxy centered around a supermassive, fast-rotating black hole known as a blazar. The galaxy is located in its constellation to the left of Orion's shoulder and is about 4 billion light-years from Earth.

Different types of neutrinos appear as three different masses, the lightest was previously unknown. And astronomers still do not know much about the differences between these three types.

The study was published Thursday in the journal Physical Review Letters.
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"One hundred billion neutrinos fly every second through your thumb from the sun, even at night," said Arthur Loureiro, study author and doctoral student at University College London. Astronomy Department. "These are very weak interactive ghosts of which we know little, what we know is that they can switch between their three flavors as they move, and this can only happen if at least two of their masses are not zero." 19659002] Mixing three different masses is like blending ice cream flavors, he said.

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"The three flavors can be compared to ice, where a scoop of strawberry, chocolate and vanilla," Loureiro said. "Three flavors are always present, but in different proportions, and the changing ratio – and the strange behavior of the particles – can only be explained by neutrinos with a mass."

The idea of ​​neutrinos with a mass collected the scientists Takaaki Kajita and Arthur McDonald, Nobel Prize in Physics 2015.

To calculate the low mass of the lightest neutrino, data from 1.1 million galaxies were used by particle physicists and cosmologists were collected. This allowed them to measure the rate of expansion of the universe. Neutrinos are widespread in the universe but hard to spot. The scientists needed as much data as possible to exploit all the benefits in their research.

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"We used information from a variety of sources, including space and ground based Telescopes that saw the first light of the universe, exploding stars, the largest 3D map of galaxies in the universe, particle accelerators, nuclear reactors and more, "said Loureiro," since neutrinos are abundant, but tiny and elusive, we needed every available knowledge to calculate their mass, and our method could be applied to other big questions, the cosmologists and cosmologists confuse particle physicists alike. "

The Grace-known supercomputer at University College London allowed the researchers to create mathematical model. The supercomputer crunched with half a million computing hours, which would have taken 60 years on a single processor.

The researchers discovered that the mass is 10 million times lighter than an electron. Calculating this mass can help researchers investigate dark matter, dark energy and the structure of the universe.


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