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Simulation may eventually explain why Knuckle Cracking makes awful sound



For decades, scientists have been discussing the cause of the blast as we crack our knuckles. A research team from France could have finally found the answer with the help of computer models.

As the authors state in the paper published today in Scientific Reports the crackling of ankle sounds caused by a "collapse" causes cavitation bubble in the synovial fluid within a metacarpophalangeal joint during joint release. "More simply, it is the sound of microscopic gas bubbles collapsing within the finger joint – but not completely bursting – Scientists first proposed this theory almost 50 years ago, but this latest work used a combination of laboratory experiments and a computer simulation to cover the case

Seems peculiar, but scientists have been investigating this physical idiosyncrasy since the early 1

900s, and they have not been able to reach consensus on the cause of the blast noise.The seemingly endless debate is the result of unconvincing experimental evidence and evidence the difficulty of visualizing the process in action: the whole phenomenon only takes about 300 milliseconds to develop, but scientists have agreed that cracking ankles is not for everyone, not every finger can produce the bang, and it takes about 20 Minutes before an ankle can be cracked again.

In order to clarify matters and to support existing experimental data, V. Chandran Suja and Abdul Bakarat from the École Polytechnique in France took geometric representations of the metacarpophalangeal joint (MCP), where the pop occurs, and transformed them into mathematical equations Computer simulations of ankle cracking operated. Or more precisely, computer simulations that showed what was going on in our fingers just before this bang.

"Mathematical modeling is particularly useful because [real-time] imaging is not fast enough to capture the phenomena involved," Bakarat told Gizmodo. "Another benefit of modeling is that it allows you to vary one parameter at a time, and thus to determine which parameters are really important to determine behavior." In this context, we found that the parameter that is the largest Influence on the sound produced by cracking is how hard you pull on the ankle, how fast you pull, the geometry of the joint, and the viscosity of the fluid (which changes with age) do not have a very strong effect. "

Research from a 2015 study showing the joint before (left) and after (19659007) Photo: Kawchuk et al., 2015 / PLoS One

The models showed that the pressure changes in the synovial fluid become one Collapse of the microscopic gas, when the joint undergoes a certain load bubbles within the synovial fluid.This theory was first reported in 1971 by scientists of the University o Leeds proposed, but in 2015, a PLoS One led by Greg Kawchuk from the Department of Rehabilitation Medicine of the University of Alberta used MRI scans to show these gas bubbles remained in the fluid, even after the Knuckles were broken. Instead of the bubbles collapsing and causing the bang, Kawchuk's team said it was the sudden growth of the bubbles that created the noise.

However, as Suja and Bakarat show, this is not a contradiction. According to their models, only a partial collapse of the bubbles is necessary to make the pop, and therefore blisters can still be seen after ankle tears. And to further their point, researchers have recorded the cracking of ankles cracked by three test subjects and compared the digital acoustic waves with those mathematically generated by computer simulation. The two acoustic waveforms were extremely similar, suggesting that Suja and Bakarat's model provides an accurate representation of ankle cracking, and that the cause of the blast is indeed the sound of collapsing bubbles. Regarding the limitations, Bakarat said his team had made a number of assumptions in the study, including the presence of just a single blister, that the bladder is perfectly spherical, that the joint has, among other things, an idealized, common shape. "In addition, one limitation of the study is that we do not model the formation of the cavitation bladder in the synovial fluid, but only the bladder collapse," he said. "One possible future direction of this work is to extend the modeling to the bubble formation phase."

Greg Kawchuk, the lead author of the 2015 paper, said Suja and Barakat were "congratulated" on designing a mathematical model that creates a theoretically pre-existing bubble. He found it interesting that other phenomena could be involved between the frames of MRI video published in his earlier study. But he believes that the new study does not completely solve the mystery of cracking.

"First of all, it has to be emphasized that the work presented in this new study is a mathematical model that has not yet been validated by physical experiments – we do not yet know if this happens in real life," said Kawchuk Gizmodo. Second, although the authors of the paper showed that the theoretical sounds produced by a theoretical bubble collapse were similar to the actual sounds produced by cracking, the authors did not test the opposite circumstance suggested in the literature by asking what acoustics could be generated from the bubbling?

What is an excellent point that Bakarat himself acknowledged was a limitation of research: "From all we know, rapid blistering can produce a very similar ankle pop sound, but the new study did not go there." [19659003] "As such, the impact of this new study is diminished by examining only one possibility (collapse of a preformed bladder) and other alternative phenomena such as blistering, multiple formation / collapse, and the ongoing problem of large volumes of gas following sonication, many of them Kawchuk said, "This topic may seem trivial," Kawchuk said, but he believes that this topic has a potential impact on health care – it could shed light on maintaining joint health and joint mobility of illness and increasing age.

Whether or not cracking is unhealthy, this latest study does not (and neither Bakarat nor Kawchuk liked to answer that question). But in 2015, Robert D. Boutin of the University of California, Davis, did some research that showed that the habit did not cause immediate pain, swelling or disability among ordinary ankle crackers, nor did those who rarely or even do so , Boutin added that "more research needs to be done to assess a long-term risk or benefit of ankle tears."

So, for your ankle crackers, you probably do not have to worry about arthritis, but remember That many of us non-ankle crackers find their habit of being absolutely repugnant. So stop that.

[Scientific Reports]


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