ASTRONOMER believe they identified six "dark galaxies" with few, if any, stars.
The enigmatic spots are depicted as shadows 12 billion light-years distant.
We can not really see her. What we have instead are clues buried in the light of galaxies around them.
The universe itself is calculated at 13.8 billion years old. And the oldest known star is 13.2 billion years.
Their existence was foreseen. But finding a galaxy that emits little or no light is obviously a test task. Then there is the additional difficulty of proving what it is.
But the ETH physicists have found six new candidates for immense clouds of primeval gas and rocky scree.
This is the raw material left over from the dying glow of the Big Bang. Other galaxies have little of this raw "stuff" left. They constantly recycle ̵
The Zurich researchers published the results of their work in The Astrophysical Journal
] GHOST GALAXIES
Dark galaxies are considered rare. For some reason, they are unable to form and ignite stars.
Instead, they are filled with huge amounts of gas and matter that are not hot enough to emit enough light for our telescopes.
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Theoretical models of the birth and evolution of our universe suggest that they should exist. They could have formed at a time when our universe was too immature for star formation.
But only a few factual data have been collected.
This may be because most of them were consumed.
Astronomers believe that much of their gas and material has long been dragged into larger galaxies, which in turn fuels new star-forming regions.
"Despite considerable progress over the last 50 years in understanding the formation of galaxies, important open questions remain as to how precisely the diffuse gas, known as the intergalactic medium, is being converted into stars," the researchers write.
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One possibility suggested in recent theoretical models is that the early phase of galaxy formation involves an epoch in which Galaxies contain a large amount of gas, but are still inefficient to form stars. "
m, however, is a challenge.
While dark galaxies are dark, they are not invisible, so it is possible for them to be shadows of Light that goes beyond them, distorting and throwing.
Quasars – the brightest objects in the Universe – can bring light into matter through the gulf of time and space.
A Quasar is a bright ball of superheated plasma, the driven by the supermassive black holes in the center of most of the visible galaxies, it is generated by the immense gravitational forces that rupture and collide matter as it falls on the event horizon.
"They emit intense UV light, which in turn emits fluorescence in hydrogen atoms known as the Lyman alpha line. As a result, the signal is amplified by some dark galaxies near the quasar, making them visible, "the researchers write.
So, when a hydrogen-blasted dark galaxy passes close to a quasar, its presence is detected by distortions in the light spectrum of the Quasars
Several possible dark galaxies were found in 2012. A recent extension of the Very Large Telescope of the European Southern Observatory enabled astronomers to look back further in space and time than previously possible.
They identified 200 sources Lyman Alpha Light Depth observations of up to 10 hours for each of the six quasar fields eliminated all but six as likely dark galaxies. "Each Quasar field observed with MUSE has the potential to discover new Dark Galaxy candidates and crucial information to deliver about the early galaxies and dark pha of galaxy formation, "the researchers wrote.