While it is widely believed that smoking largely damages the lungs because it is directly exposed to inhaled smoke, health experts warn that it also affects the entire cardiovascular system. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) smoking of tobacco for high blood pressure is the second leading cause of heart disease worldwide. Almost 12% of cardiovascular deaths worldwide occur due to tobacco abuse and secondhand smoke.
Tobacco cigarettes burn, a burning organic material that produces temperatures of up to 900 degrees Celsius. Chronic exposure tends to thicken blood vessels and weaken them in the long run. This can lead to blood clots and ultimately lead to stroke or peripheral heart disease.
"Inhaling the smoke from tobacco builds fat ̵
In addition, the presence of nicotine in the cigarettes increases blood pressure, which may adversely affect the oxygen balance of the heart. "Nicotine causes thickening of the blood vessels, which hinders blood flow and also causes high blood pressure or high blood pressure," said Mukesh Goel, chief physician of thoracic and vascular surgery of the hospital Indraprastha Apollo, to IANS.
E-cigarettes also expose lungs, heart and other organs to very high levels of toxic substances.
Tobacco also contains carbon monoxide, which mixes more easily with hemoglobin in the blood than oxygen and thus affects the oxygen supply in the body. Carbon monoxide prevents the blood system from effectively transporting oxygen around the body, especially to vital organs such as the heart and brain, according to the experts. In addition to regular smokers, people who passively inhale smoke may also be at risk. 19659002] WHO states that out of the seven million lives claimed by tobacco annually worldwide, nearly 900,000 are passive smokers. Tobacco, whether smoked, swallowed or chewed, presents several dangers. In addition to the effects on the lungs and the heart, it also increases the risk of head and neck cancer, lung, esophageal, pancreatic and urological carcinomas.
According to a recent study published in the Journal of Physiology, smoking could directly damage the muscles by reducing the number of blood vessels in the leg muscles, which in turn reduces the amount of oxygen and nutrients the muscles receive. This can affect metabolism and activity. In addition, smoking affects both male and female fertility, the doctors said.
"Women who smoke tobacco reduce their chances of getting pregnant by at least 60% and are also associated with tubal pregnancy and other tubal infertility," Sagarika Aggarwal, an IVF expert at the Indira IVF Hospital, New Delhi, told IANS , On the other hand, male smokers may suffer from decreased sperm quality with less mobility and an increased number of abnormally shaped sperm. In addition, chain smoking could also reduce the sperm's ability to fertilize eggs. In addition to infertility, tobacco during pregnancy can also lead to many problems ranging from miscarriage to underdevelopment of the fetus, making the child susceptible to various forms of attention deficit disorder such as attention deficit / hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), Goel noted
That's the best way, the experts said, while they reject the use of alternatives such as e-cigarettes. "While it's true that e-cigarettes contain less tobacco than regular cigarettes, bidis or shisha, they also expose the lungs, heart and other organs to very high concentrations of toxic substances," said Goel. Other measures, such as clinical interventions, counseling and behavioral therapies, can help people stop tobacco abuse.
"Nicotine replacement therapy, including nicotine patches, chewing gum, lozenges, inhalers, etc., has been shown to be effective Combination therapy with medicines such as bupropion has proven to be more effective than nicotine replacement alone," said Viveka Kumar, senior director of Max Heart & Vascular Institute, Saket.
Kumar also emphasized the role of the mass media in disseminating awareness of the harmful effects of tobacco while restricting easy access to tobacco, especially among the younger vulnerable populations. "The availability and accessibility of smoking cessation programs for smokers who want to quit smoking remains an area that needs addressing," Kumar said.
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