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Home / Science / Stunning images show a gigantic, ice-filled crater covering 50 miles of the surface of Mars

Stunning images show a gigantic, ice-filled crater covering 50 miles of the surface of Mars



It's a perfect picture of a Christmas card from another planet.

The European Space Agency's Mars Express has delivered an incredible new series of images showing a giant crater on the red planet.

It shows the Korolev crater, an 82 km wide feature in the northern lowlands of Mars.

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  The Mars Express of the European Space Agency has an incredible new series of images of the Korolev crater, a 50 miles (82 km) in the northern lowlands of Mars

  The Mars Express The European Space Agency has delivered an incredible new series of images showing the Korolev Crater, an 82-kilometer-wide image in the north lowlands of Mars

The Mars Express of the European Space Agency has delivered an incredible new series of images depicting the Korolev Craters show an 82 km wide element in the northern lowlands of Mars

WHAT MAKES THE ICE?

The eternal presence is based on a phenomenon called "cold trap" because the bottom of the crater is two kilometers vertically below its rim.

The deepest parts of the Korolev crater act as a natural cold trap.

The air that moves over the ice deposit cools and sinks, creating a layer of cold air directly above the ice itself.

This layer acts as a protective shield and stabilizes the ice, preventing it from heating up and disappearing.

Immediately south of much of the dune-infested terrain surrounding part of the planet's northern polar cap (known as Olympia Undae), the ESA believes that it is It is a particularly well-preserved example of a Martian crater.

It is not filled with snow, but with ice, and at its center is a year round about 1.8 kilometers thick water ice.

This arched deposit forms a glacier that encompasses approximately 528 cubic kilometers of nonpolar ice on Mars.

Smaller amounts of water ice are distributed in the form of thin layers of frost on and around the crater rim.

This eternal presence is based on a phenomenon called "cold trap" because the bottom of the crater is two kilometers vertically below its rim.

The deepest parts of the Korolev crater, which contain ice, act as a natural cold trap: the air that moves over the ice deposit cools and sinks, creating a layer of cold air directly above the ice located.

This layer acts as a shield and keeps the ice stable and stops it from heating up and disappearing.

Air is a poor conductor of heat, which exacerbates this effect and keeps the Korolev crater permanently iced up.

This high-resolution stereo camera from Mars Express (HRSC) includes five different "stripes" that are combined into one image, with each strip recorded in a different orbit.

  Color-coded topographical map of the Korolev crater: The image strips taken with the HRSC camera system on board Mars Express from different angles are used to create digital terrain models of the Martian surface that contain elevation information for each recorded pixel. The color coding of the digital terrain model (top right) effectively indicates the height differences: the topographic profile of the region extends over a height of approximately 3500 meters.

  Color-coded topographical map of the Korolev crater: The recorded image strips Different angles of the HRSC camera system on board Mars Express are used to create digital terrain models of the Martian surface that contain altitude information for each recorded pixel. The color coding of the digital terrain model (top right) effectively indicates the elevation differences: the topographical profile of the region extends over a height of approximately 3500 meters.

Color-coded topographic map of the Korolev crater: The image strips taken from it Various angles of the HRSC camera system onboard Mars Express are used to create digital terrain models of the Martian surface that contain elevation information for each recorded pixel. The color coding of the digital terrain model (top right) effectively indicates differences in elevation: the topographical profile of the region is approximately 3,500 meters in altitude.

The crater is also shown in perspective, contextual and topographical views, all of which provide a more complete overview of the terrain in and around the crater.

  From the high-resolution stereo camera of Mars Express (HRSC), this view of the Korolev crater includes five distinct "stripes" that have been combined into a single image, with each stripe collected in a different orbit.

  Taken In the Mars Express (HRSC) high-resolution stereo camera, this view of the Korolev crater includes five distinct "stripes" that have been combined into a single image, with each strip recorded in a different orbit.

Mars Express's High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC), this view of the Korolev crater is made up of five distinct "stripes" that have been combined into a single image, with each stripe collected in a different orbit.

The crater is named after the chief rocket engineer and the rocket engineer. The spacecraft designer Sergei Korolev was the father of Soviet space technology.

Korolev worked on a number of well-known missions, including the Sputnik program – the first artificial satellite ever to be orbited in the ear. In 1957 and the following years, the Vostok and Vokshod programs followed in space exploration (Wostok is the spaceship that brought the first human, Yuri Gagarin, into space in 1961) as well as the first interplanetary missions to the Moon, Mars, and Venus.

He also worked on a series of missiles that were the precursors of the successful Soyuz launcher – still the workhorses of the Russian space program, and was used for both crew and robotic flights.

The Mars region was also of interest to other missions, including ESA's ExoMars program, which aims to determine if any life on Mars actually existed.

The CaSSIS instrument (Color and Stereo Surface Imaging System) aboard the ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter, which started operation Mars also shot a nice view of part of the Korolev crater on April 28, 2018 – this was one of the first images that the spaceship had sent back to Earth after arriving on our neighboring planet.

CaSSIS showed a 4 0 kilometer long piece of the crater's northern crater rim, which shows its intriguing shape and structure as well as its bright, icy deposits.

Scientists combined three shots of the Korolev crater on April 15 from a height of 400 kilometers.

  The well-preserved Korolev impact crater is located in the northern lowlands of Mars, which surrounds the ice cap of the North Pole. The image is a mosaic of five individual images taken with the HRSC stereo camera operated by DLR on board the ESA orbiter Mars Express

 . The well-preserved Korolev Impact Crater is located in the northern lowlands of Mars, which surrounds the North Pole ice cap. The image is a mosaic of five individual images taken with the HRSC stereo camera operated by DLR onboard the ESA Mars Express orbiter

The well-preserved Korolev impact crater is located in northern Marsland, which surrounds the North Pole ice cap. The image is a mosaic of five frames taken by the DLR-powered HRSC stereo camera onboard the ESA Mars Express orbiter.

Lead researcher Nicolas Thomas said the colors in the resulting image were also adjusted on Thursday to best resemble the visible to the human eye.

The camera used is one of four instruments on board the orbiter to search for gases, such as methane, that might indicate biological or geological activity on Mars.

Thomas said the camera would allow scientists to study areas where gases are found, monitor Mars for signs of change and help explore the planet for future landing sites.

The spacecraft had arrived some weeks ago in a nearly circular orbit of 400 km altitude, before primarily targeting gases that may be associated with active geological or biological activity on Mars.

  The European Space Agency ESA and the ExoMars Color and Stereo Surface Imaging System CaSSIS have taken this view on the Krolev crater rim (73.3ºN / 165.9ºE) on April 15, 2018. The European Space Agency has a first image of a probe orbiting Mars, showing the ice-capped rim of a huge crater. On April 15, scientists combined three 400-kilometer images taken with the Trace Gas Orbiter camera instrument, CaSSIS.

  Image provided by the European Space Agency ESA: The ExoMars Color and Stereo Surface Imaging System, CaSSIS, has taken this view of the Krolev Crater (73.3ºN / 165.9ºE) on April 15, 2018. The European Space Agency has released its first image of a probe orbiting Mars, showing the ice-covered edge of a huge crater. On April 15, scientists combined three 400-kilometer images taken with the Trace Gas camera instrument Orbiters, CaSSIS, were recorded.

Image provided by the European Space Agency (ESA): The ExoMars Color and Stereo Surface Imaging System, CaSSIS, took this view of the Krolev Crater (73.3ºN / 165.9ºE) on April 15, 2018. The European Space Agency has released its first image of a probe orbiting Mars, showing the ice-covered edge of a huge crater. On April 15, scientists combined three 400-kilometer images taken with the Trace Gas camera instrument Orbiters, CaSSIS, were recorded.

The color and stereo surface imaging system of the orbiter, CaSSIS, captured this stunning image as part of an impact crater during the trial period of the instrument.

The camera was activated on March 20 and tested for the launch of its main mission on April 28.

& # 39; At the beginning of the testing phase and after some minor problems, we have transferred new software to the instrument. The instrument is in good health and ready to work, "says the camera's chief investigator, Nicolas Thomas from the University of Bern in Switzerland.

The picture shows a 40 km long segment of the Korolev crater rising high in the north Hemisphere is located.

The bright material on the crater rim is ice.

"We were really pleased to see how good this image was under the light conditions," says Antoine Pommerol, member of the CaSSIS science team on data calibration.

& # 39; It turns out that CaSSIS can make an important contribution to studying the carbon dioxide and water cycles on Mars. "

The picture consists of three images that were taken on April 15 in different ways Colors were recorded almost simultaneously. [19659055] In February, a spacecraft was hovering around Mars to test its atmosphere for possible signs of life, and the ship is ready to set the atmosphere for gases like Me than to "sniff". How methane can be generated and destroyed on Mars is illustrated. ” class=”blkBorder img-share” />

  Already in February, a space probe swung around Mars to examine its atmosphere for possible signs of life. The ship is ready to "sniff" the atmosphere for gases like methane. How to generate and destroy methane on Mars is demonstrated

Already in February, a space probe swung around Mars in preparation to examine the atmosphere for possible signs of life. The ship is ready to "sniff" the atmosphere for gases like methane. How methane can be generated and destroyed on Mars is illustrated.

"We want to fully automate the imaging process," says Nick.

"Once we have achieved that, we can quickly pass the data on to the scientific community for analysis."

The team also plans regular releases.

The Orbiter's camera is one of four instruments on the Gas Orbiter or TGO track that also houses two spectrometer series and one neutron detector.

The spectrometers began their scientific mission on April 21, when the spacecraft entered the atmosphere for the first time.

In reality, snooping is the spectrometer that looks at how molecules in the atmosphere absorb sunlight: each has a unique fingerprint that reveals its chemical composition.


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