Astronomers now view our universe as a cosmic web consisting of massive filaments of galaxies separated by huge cavities. We do not know exactly how this cosmic web is. Most of our research has been done using computational models, in particular the model of cold dark matter for galaxy formation, which is currently favored by most cosmologists. The model shows that filaments in the cosmic network ̵
According to current theories of galaxy formation, such intense activity can only be triggered and sustained over time as large amounts of gas from the surrounding regions are channeled into the assembly cluster.
The group found that the filaments detected in the cosmic web contained a significant reservoir of gas. They assume that this gas promotes the further growth of the galaxies in this region.
These astronomers are from the RIKEN Cluster of Pioneering Research in Japan and the Durham University in the UK journal Science . An introduction to their work explains:
Most of the gas in the universe lies in the intergalactic medium [between the galaxies] where it forms into leaves and filaments of the cosmic web. At the intersection of these filaments form galaxy clusters, which are fed by gas, which is pulled along by gravity. Although this picture is well documented by cosmological simulations, it was difficult to demonstrate it observationally.
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The new study was conducted with observations of the Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) at the Very Large Telescope of the European Southern Observatory. Their statement explains:
The astronomers detected the gas filaments by the characteristic radiation that is produced when the neutral hydrogen gas contained in them is excited by ambient ultraviolet light and then returns to its lowest energy state.
The detected radiation was also intense, to only derive from the typical background level of ultraviolet light that permeates the universe, and the researchers' models instead suggest that it is from the light of many star-shaped galaxies and black holes in the region is driven.
Lead Hideki Umehata of the RIKEN Cluster of Pioneer Research and Tokyo University said:
The presence of such intense radiation suggests that gas falling under gravity along the filaments causes the formation of many star-sputtering galaxies and Galaxies trigger supermassive black holes that ultimately give the universe the structure we see today.
Earlier observations have shown a similar emission of gas blobs extending beyond galaxies, but now we could clearly show that these filaments extend over much greater distances and even go beyond the edge of the field we are looking at.
This gives credibility to the idea that these filaments actually stimulate the intense activity that we see in galaxies in large structures that are composed in the early Universe.
Conclusion: Astronomers in the UK and Japan studied the cosmic web, a large-scale structure of massive filaments of galaxies separated by huge cavities. They found that the filaments also contained significant amounts of gas, which was thought to promote galaxy growth. The new observations allow scientists to directly map the cosmic web and to understand in detail its role in regulating the formation of supermassive black holes and galaxies.
Source: Gas filaments of the cosmic network, which is in a proton cluster around active galaxies.  Via Durham University