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The dictionary of Nipah – OTHER



Nipah

A virus named after Kampung Sungai Nipah, a village in Malaysia where it was discovered in 1998/99. The virus, which eventually killed 105 people in Malaysia, was initially thought to be Japanese Encephalitis (JE), which, like the Nipah virus, induces encephalitis. According to an article by dr. KB Chua, who was trained as a virologist at the University of Malaya when the disease broke out, "was the outbreak of human febrile encephalitis preceded by the occurrence of respiratory disease and encephalitis in pigs in the same region." However, he writes that at this point the cause of porcine mortality was accepted as classical swine fever.

Suspected, however, that it was not the mosquito-borne JE that caused the disease boost. Among the pig farmers in the region, he took samples of the virus into the Division of Arbovirus-Borne Diseases, Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Fort Collins, USA. "At CDC, Atlanta, the virus was quickly identified as a new paramyxovirus," he writes.

The virus, which dates back to pigs, led to a large-scale culling of the animals in this region. Further studies showed that the original transmission of bats to pigs was likely to occur when pig feed was contaminated with bat exudates, according to a paper published in 2007 entitled "Lessons from the outbreak of the Nipah virus in Malaysia".
The Malaysian Journal of Pathology

Zoonosis

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), "a zoonosis is a disease transmitted from vertebrates to humans." It could be caused by a virus, bacteria, fungi or parasites; Some examples are anthrax, bird flu, Ebola, dengue, rabies, malaria, swine flu and leptospirosis.

It is believed that Nipah is transmitted by so-called bats, so-called mega-bats, because they are the largest bat species. They eat fruits and live in trees. These are part of the old world bat family, called pteropid bats. Bats are often reserves for a number of serious infectious diseases, including Ebola, SARS coronavirus, Nipah and Hendra.

Transmission

In the case of Nipah, disease transmission or the means by which a pathogen can be passed from one organism to another, it is believed that "if you have infected fruit and fresh date palm juice by bats contaminated, consumed " Mahesh Kumar, Consultant ̵

1; Internal Medicine, Narayana Health City. That is, one should be careful when choosing their fruits. "Do not eat them on the floor, especially if they have skin damage," says Dr. K. Kolandaswamy, Director of Public Health, Tamil Nadu.

The loss of the bat's natural habitat seems to play a role in this region, exacerbating the rate of bat-to-man transmission. The WHO says so much, says dr. Kumar. "As bats' habitat is destroyed by human activity, bats become stressed and hungry, their immune systems weaken, their viral load increases, and a large amount of viruses are released into the urine and saliva," explains Kolandaswamy.

"Human-to-human transmission occurs through direct contact," says Dr. N Devadasan, director of the Institute of Public Health, who led the WHO outbreak investigation team when the infection broke out in Siliguri in 2001 Suppliers who change bedding, clean bedpans, and take care of the patient are ultimately hit. Immediate isolation and ensuring that general care is taken in hospitals help to control the spread of the disease, all doctors agree. "When someone gets sick in India, the whole family comes and visits," says Devadasan. "It's better they stay away until the patient gets better."

RNA virus

Nipah is an RNA or ribonucleic acid virus. "RNA viruses are the most common cause of emerging human diseases due to the high rate of mutation of RNA viruses compared to DNA viruses," the book said
Essential Human Virology
, Nipah belongs to a genus (category, in layman speak) called Henipavirus; The Hendra virus, which is also found on pteropod bats, also belongs to this category. According to the CDC, "The transmission of HeV to humans is always associated with diseased horses, and the transmission of NiV in Bangladesh is mainly through date palm juice contaminated with bat secretions."

Biosafety Level 4

The virus classified as Biosafety Level 4, which means it is highly infectious and requires maximum containment, can be confirmed by an ELISA, RT-PCR or serum neutralization test. The incubation period is somewhere between 5-14 days, but it may soon affect the respiratory and nervous system and patients may go into delirium or coma. Unfortunately, there is no definitive treatment, except intensive care. "We need to get the vital functions," says Kolandaswamy, adding that the earlier the condition is diagnosed, the better for the patient.

Immediate isolation and ensuring universal accommodation in hospitals help to control the spread of the disease

Sound plays a role

Mikrobats (the smaller, insectivorous) have a biological sonar system to negotiate flight – a phenomenon that Echo location is called.


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