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A recent report from University College London and the medical journal Lancet provides a comprehensive and often surprising insight into the medical and economic implications of immigration.
Twenty Public Health Researchers The project has been involved in the project for two years from 13 countries, and nearly 300 studies have been reviewed, mostly dating back to that decade, but dating back to 1994. Today, populist leaders have painted a picture of migration, which is mostly about hordes of destitute people pouring into the rich, countries that carry diseases and absorb resources. They say the truth is very different.
According to the International Organization for Migration, the United States Department of Migration, more than one billion people today live in a region other than their birthplace. A quarter of them live in another country, the rest have moved within their home country. They are a mixture of refugees from war zones, climate change refugees fleeing heat waves, droughts or rising sea levels, jobseekers and students who have completed their own enrollment at universities in other countries.
The Commission has developed a broad network of studies and analyzes on anthropology, law, health, economics and more. "There is consistent evidence from various disciplines that a number of myths systematically used to justify prejudice against migrants are not truly confirmed by the facts," says Ibrahim Abubakar, director of the Institute of Global Health at UCL and Chairman of the UCL Commission.
"The Commission has done a great job bringing together what we know and some of the needs we are experiencing," says Mesfin Teklu Tessema, who heads the Health Unit of the International Rescue Committee.
Here are some key points that the report addresses.
Do migrants spread infectious diseases?
This is an idea of opponents of migration – most recently with the claim that the caravan for migrants in Mexico is carrying leprosy, tuberculosis and smallpox (was declared extinct in 1980).
Finding information about the incidence of infectious diseases in the migrant population has been a challenge for many. Migrants and refugees come to other countries without permission. "They do not want to be seen and heard and counted," says Paul Spiegel, commissioner and director of the Johns Hopkins University Center for Humanitarian Health. Spiegel and the other commissioners say there are no signs of a major problem. Two studies, involving more than half a million immigrants in the UK and Norway, showed that migrants have higher tuberculosis rates than the local population, but apparently do not transfer TB to their new neighbors.
Are migrants a burden on local population health systems?
Not the migrants who move to high-income countries. Overall, they have a lower mortality rate than locals. Studies of the Commission's locations show that fewer migrants die as a percentage of migrants over the years and across all age groups. They die less frequently of heart disease, cancer and other common diseases. There was not enough data to say if this also applies to migrants in low and middle income countries.
Commissioners cite several possible factors for the survival benefit, including the possibility that healthier people are more likely to emigrate as sick land Thus, the migrant population could be healthier in the first place.
In addition, migrants provide an advantage to health systems by providing key individuals. "The report clearly states that high-income countries are highly dependent on migrants from low-income countries for medical care, teaching and care of grandparents," says Commissioner Terry McGovern. An example of this is the United Kingdom, where foreign doctors can take tests and qualify for practice. A quarter of the National Health Service (NHS) doctors are not born in the UK, and policymakers are concerned that as a result of leaving the European Union – widely seen as an anti-immigration vote – fewer foreign doctors want it in the UK live or emigrate These possibilities threaten the already heavily understaffed NHS.
However, refugees fleeing difficult situations – less than 10 percent of the total migrant community – face challenges related to mental health issues. They had depression and anxiety about twice as often as migrants moving to work.
A research study accompanying the report that migration has psychological implications for left-behind family members. It turns out that children who do not move to their parents have 50 percent more depression than other children. They also have more anxiety and suicidal thoughts and are taking drugs.
Did the migration suddenly make a leap?
Although the number of migrants in the world is at a record high, the immigration rate has not increased very much. In 1990 it was 2.9 percent of the world population, compared to 3.4 percent last year. Migrants who are refugees are not targeting rich countries, mostly because they stay in the first safe place they can reach.
"Data for migration tell us that more people from low- and middle-income countries immigrate to their own countries and regions than from high-income countries, even though vociferous political rhetoric implies otherwise, conclude the commissioners. [19659008 Is their birth rate high?
Another finding thwarting political rhetoric When migrants first settle down, they do not have many children, and the commissioners found that migrants have fewer children than natives They would hardly replace 2.1 births per woman.
What are the financial implications of receiving migrants?
According to the report, there is overwhelming consensus among economic analysts that migrants increase the economies in higher income countries and also help people in their homeland n. For example, a report by the International Monetary Fund (2016) in 2016 states that both highly and poorly qualified migrants to wealthy countries will improve their economies over the long term, so that the immigration population can grow by 1 percent over the years increase to 2 percent.
Remittances to low and middle income countries are an important source of support for people who are lagging behind. Of the $ 613 billion that was sent home last year, three quarters of them were in low- and middle-income countries, according to the World Health Organization.
Joanne Silberner, a former health correspondent for NPR, is a London-based freelance journalist.