Quasar tsunamis, discovered by astronomers with the Hubble Space Telescope, erupt in the most vigorous runoff that has ever been seen. This pouring out of energy wrecks devastates galaxies in which these puzzling objects are located and changes the development of these star families.
Quasars are energetic galaxy nuclei that consist of supermassive black holes that are fed by huge amounts of gas, stars and planets. These bodies can release a thousand times as much energy as the entire galaxy in which the bodies are located.
These quasar winds push material away from the center of the galaxy and accelerate gas and dust at speeds that approach a few percent of the speed of light. The pressure pushes material aside that could otherwise collapse and form new ones Stars, which complicates star formation and reduces the number of newly formed stars. This new study shows that this process is more widespread than previously thought and has changed the star formation overall Galaxies.
“These drains are crucial for understanding the formation of galaxies. They push hundreds of solar masses of material every year. The amount of mechanical energy these drains carry is up to several hundred times greater than the luminosity of the entire Milky Way galaxy, ”said Virginia Tech’s Nahum Arav.
When the drain explodes in interstellar material, it heats the medium to millions of degrees and stops it galaxy get out in x-rays. Energy flows through the galaxy and creates fireworks for anyone who can see it.
“They get a lot of radiation in X-rays and gamma rays first, and then they seep into visible and infrared light. They’d get a huge light show like Christmas trees all over the galaxy,” said Arav.
Galaxies are blown away
I saw the whole universe in front of me, a huge glowing machine of indescribable beauty and complexity. The design was too complicated to understand and I knew that I could never grasp more than the smallest idea of its purpose. But I felt that every part of it, from curd to quasar, was unique and – mysteriously – significant. – – R. J. Anderson
This study could explain various puzzles in astronomy and cosmology, including why the size of galaxies is related to the mass of the galaxies supermassive black holes in their centers. It could also explain why there are so few massive galaxies in the entire cosmos.
“Both theorists and observers have known for decades that there is a physical process that turns off star formation in massive galaxies, but the nature of this process was a mystery. Including the observed runoffs in our simulations solves these outstanding problems in galactic evolution, ”he said Jeremiah Ostriker, a cosmologist at Columbia and Princeton universities, who is not involved in this current study. Below is a 3D animation video of a quasar from the European Southern Observatory (ESO).
Outflows from quasars were investigated by astronomers using the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS), which is based on the Hubble Space Telescope, the only instrument that can make the necessary observations in ultraviolet wavelengths.
A second runoff, measured by researchers in this study, increased its speed from 69 million kilometers per hour to 74 million KPH (46 million MPH) over a three-year period. Models suggest that such drains should have been common in the beginning Universe. Researchers in this study believe that this material will accelerate further in the foreseeable future.
The analysis of the data was published in the journal Astrophysical Journal Supplements.
This article was originally published on The Cosmic Companion by James Maynard, an astronomy journalist, fan of coffee, science fiction, films, and creativity. Maynard has been writing about space since he was ten, but he’s “still not Carl Sagan”. The mailing list / podcast of the Cosmic Companion. You can read this original here.
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