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The International Space Station at a glance



Born in 1998 with the launch of the first component, the ISS as it is known today is the only artificial structure in space that can sustain human dwellers for long periods of time and elevate the planet to an altitude of 408 km (253 miles). , It is also the third brightest object in the night sky.

The ISS is the ninth manned space station, followed by the Russians Salyut, Almaz, Mir and the American Skylab.

To date, 230 people from 18 countries have risen to the International Space Station. The ISS has been in continuous service since November 2000, and six international crews have alternately conducted various experiments in space.

The ISS can accommodate six spaceships at the same time. A spacecraft can arrive at the space station six hours after takeoff from Earth. There are currently four different spacecraft that provide science, cargo, astronauts or supplies: Orbital ATKs Cygnus, SpaceX's Dragon, JAXA's HTV and Russian Progress.

CONSTRUCTION

The space station is 357 feet long, consisting of the modules, the integrated truss structure and the solar panels.

For the crew, the ISS offers a living and working space larger than a six-bedroom house. The living area is divided into six bedrooms, two bathrooms, a gym and a 360-degree bay window.

The entire interior of the station – a habitable volume of 13,696 cubic feet (388 cubic meters), a print volume of 32,333 cubic feet (916 cubic meters) – was achieved by connecting a number of cylinders called modules.

Power for the station comes from the 8 solar arrays that deliver 75 to 90 kilowatts of power. They are mounted on the backbone of the station, which is called a framework, a structure of 109.5 meters in length. The 73-meter-long solar modules give the station an unmistakable appearance from Earth.

The ISS includes some pressurized modules that serve as a habitat for their crew and provide harbors for docking and docking. As an international initiative, several countries involved in the project developed their own modules.

The major modules and other parts of the station were deployed on 42 assembly flights, 37 with US space shuttles and five missiles with Russian proton / Soyuz IMPORTANT MODULES
Knot 1 unit is the first US-built element that was launched to the ISS. It was developed by Boeing and is currently used to connect the Russian and American parts of the station.

Node 2 Harmony is the work of Thales Alenia Space Italy and was built in Europe. It provides crew quarters for 4 members as well as important functional resources for the operation of the connected elements: the conversion and distribution of electrical energy, heating, cooling and support of data and video interchange with the ground and the rest of the ISS.

Node 3 Tranquility was also designed in Europe. It houses equipment for air revitalization, oxygen production, carbon dioxide removal and water recovery systems. The bathroom for the crew and the training equipment can be found here.

When the astronauts opted for a spacewalk, be it in American or Russian spacesuits, they use the Joint Airlock Quest module, a unit also developed by Boeing. Since 1998, astronauts and cosmonauts have performed more than 205 spacewalks for the construction, maintenance and repair of station areas, most of them from here.

The work of the astronauts outside the station can be monitored by the Cupola . Built by Thales Alenia Space, it is a small module ideal for observing robotic activities or approaching utility vehicles.

The Functional Cargo Block Zarya is a module of the Russian Research Center for Research and Production Khrunichev. It was the first Russian module launched to the ISS and is a stand-alone module that provides power, communication and attitude control functions.

When supplies and astronauts reach the space station in the Soyuz and Progress vehicles, they use the module of the Pirs Docking Department built by the Russian SP Korolev Missile and Space Corporation Energia [19659002] Service module Zvezda is a Russian contribution that provides housing, life support system, power distribution, data processing system, flight control system and propulsion system. RESEARCH
In total, more than 20 different research payloads can be used to be housed outside the station, including earth sensor equipment, materials science, payload or particle physics experiments.

Several research facilities are on board the ISS to support investigations into microgravity research, including in biology, biotechnology, human physiology, material science, physics and technology development

Since its inception, the Space Station has conducted more than 2,400 research studies by researchers in more than 103 countries.

See the following link for the NASA International Space Station Reference Guide.


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