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The last 72 hours in Brexit, explained

It should have been the crucial moment for Brexit: a vote on the revised agreement on the withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the European Union by 31 October.

However, the "Supersack Day" went down in the British Parliament after the legislature's vote to withhold support for Prime Minister Boris Johnson's Brexit deal until all necessary legislation was passed, and to force the Prime Minister to renew an " accidental "crash on October 31 to prevent.

Johnson is Mandated under UK Law Send a letter to the EU asking for a three-month delay until January 2020. But, as with everything that has to do with Brexit, even simple things are not easy. As a Brexiter-in-Chief, he did not do so voluntarily. He left the extension letter unsigned and added a signed second letter, which made it clear that Johnson considers the delay of Brexit bad.

The EU is considering delaying the application, even though Johnson is about to complete all Brexit laws to reach a Halloween Brexit.

While all this was going on, hundreds of thousands marched to London to demand a second national referendum – another referendum – on Brexit.

Currently, support for his Brexit deal remains tight – "a toss coin," as Alexandra Cirone, a professor of politics at Cornell University, said last week. This is still the case this week, even though MEPs have asked for a bit more time to consider the deal and legislation.

Johnson's government released the law on the withdrawal of applications late Monday, although some in Parliament are already trying to make things very difficult.

Expect another wild week in British politics as it has not yet decided whether Britain will leave the EU in ten days. But here is a brief summary of what happened when you probably did not see Parliament on Saturday, and what has happened since then to help you understand what might happen next.

Parliament thwarts Boris Johnson's vote on his Brexit deal

The fate of Brexit could have been decided in Parliament's historic session on Saturday. But the deputies had a different idea. [Thursday] Johnson secured a revised Brexit deal on Thursday that eliminated the Irish backslide that made up most of the opposition to Theresa May's Brexit plan with the die-hard Brexit followers. He planned a direct up or down vote this weekend to support the deal or not until Sir Oliver Letwin, an independent MP, put forward an amendment that destroyed the government's plans.

MEPs supported, 322-306, a largely similar amendment The final decision on Johnson's Brexit deal was postponed until the relevant law – the so-called WAB law – came into force. Johnson's Brexit deal is a contract with the EU and must therefore be transposed into national law. Which means that two things technically have to happen before October 31: a vote to approve the Brexit deal (the 2018 self-proclaimed MPs with "meaningful vote") and another that approves all of the legislation.

MEPs feared that less than two weeks could pass to scrutinize this generation-defining legislation and, therefore, wanted more time, if necessary, to review and vote on the bill. In other words, they forced Johnson to apply for a three-month extension if his Brexit deal was successful or not.

Johnson, of course, put his Prime Minister on the promise that Britain would leave the EU by 31 October so he would not seek any further delay. It also postponed the moment of reckoning: whether the parliament will ultimately support its deal or defeat it as its predecessor did.

Johnson sent a letter to the EU because he had to. Then he sent another letter to the EU because he wanted.

Johnson said after the Letwin vote that he would not apply for an extension and still try to leave on October 31st. The problem, however, is that Johnson is required by law to at least ask the EU for a Brexit extension – there. It did not seem like an obvious loophole to solve the problem.

Johnson reluctantly sent a letter requesting a delay until January 31, 2020, but did not sign it. In a second letter he signed, Johnson basically said, "Although I was forced to apply for an extension, I think we can do it by October 31."

"Although I preferred a different outcome Today, the government will push for ratification and introduce the necessary legislation early next week, "he wrote. "I remain confident that we will complete this process by October 31st." (A third letter from the British Ambassador to the EU was also included.)

The President of the European Council, Donald Tusk stated that he had received the renewal letter and consulted with the EU Heads of State or Government, such as they should react. The Scottish courts are currently examining whether Johnson's second letter was an attempt to block an extension, but it looks like the EU is basically ignoring the stunt and continuing to consider whether Brexit should be extended or not.

All 27 EU leaders must agree unanimously, and it is likely that they will grant a kind of extension, as the EU does not want to be seen as enforcing a Brexit without an agreement. But it looks like the EU is not going to make a decision either. The Heads of State and Government will wait a bit for the Brexit debate to take place in Parliament this week. For now, the deadline for Brexit remains October 31st.

Thousands marched for a second referendum.

While this drama was taking place in Parliament, hundreds of thousands of Britons marched to demand a renewed vote on Brexit.

Proponents of a The second referendum – led by the "People's Vote" campaign – argued that British citizens did not really know what they voted for in June 2016 when they were asked if they were between "holidays The reality – especially Boris Johnson's Brexit deal – citizens should have a different word about whether this is the Brexit they want or whether it should be abolished altogether.

But a second referendum – or a confirmatory vote, as they say – is very tricky. Parliament has discussed such confirmation vote, which would return the Brexit deal (May first, now Johnson) to the people. First, it could take months to get it done, and force a much longer Brexit extension, if one is available.

There is also no clarity on how the question could be formulated: Would it be a choice between Boris & # 39; Deal and remaining in the EU? Or would it be a clean 2016 Do-Over by Leave versus Remain? Could a referendum offer three options: Staying ununited or Johnson's agreement? And what happens when the catastrophic no-deal result wins?

Brexiteans claim that a second referendum would be undemocratic, an attempt to undo the popular will shown in the year 2016. Supporters of a second referendum say the beauty of democracy is able to change its mind, especially as circumstances change.

Meanwhile, British politicians are concerned to support a second referendum. Opposition leader Jeremy Corbyn of the Labor Party has delivered a messed-up message in a second referendum, although many in his party wanted him to support them. But Labor has left voters in its ranks and the political risk for Corbyn is real.

Some Labor MEPs are expected to submit an amendment to the Brexit Deal legislation requiring a second referendum, but it is not clear they will have the votes to succeed as MEPs have been reluctant to to support this directly. So far, Parliament has only voted for how much support a second referendum would have among MEPs, and it rejected such a plan, 280-292. A few months later (and protests), Parliament's reluctance to support a second referendum did not move too much.

Speaker of the House John Bercow said Boris Johnson could not get another vote on his deal.

After a pretty rough weekend, Johnson received more bad news on Monday. Speaker of the House John Bercow, who had spoiled the government's plans a couple of times during Brexit, ruled that Johnson could not hand in his Brexit deal on Monday, as it would be "repetitive and disorderly."

Bercov's decision is not too surprising: he made a similar call when it came to May's attempt to resubmit their Brexit agreement. As the de facto arbitrator of the Parliament, he argued that the request to vote on the Brexit deal "essentially complies with Saturday's request and the House decided the matter." In other words, the House agreed Refuse consent until all laws have been passed; There would be no sense in putting the first issue to the vote again.

Johnson probably knew that this too would be the verdict, and perhaps just tried to tell his followers and Brexiters that Parliament and their spokesman Spokesman (who, by the way, will retire on October 31) will only try to Brexit thwart. (Bercow himself does not vote.) This was a small, not entirely unexpected setback for Johnson. But the real drama is expected on Tuesday.

The Brexit Act was voted on Tuesday. Parliament wants some optimizations.

Parliament said on Saturday it would postpone a final decision on the Brexit deal until all these laws have been passed.

On Monday, Johnson's government released the Law on the European Union (readmission agreement), which would make it possible to transpose the Brexit Agreement into law. There are 115 pages, and Members are still dealing with it. Many are already complaining that this process is accelerating, especially since the government has not even published an economic rating. In addition, the bill repeals the law, which requires a "reasonable vote" for the Brexit deal, meaning that the actual vote on the deal would not have to take place. As soon as (or if) this bill is passed by law, it can at least come from the British side to a Brexit.

And MEPs are expected to vote on Tuesday on the "second reading" of the bill. There are a few more lawsuits to go through before the law goes into effect, but as the Guardian points out, it will be a good test of support for Johnson's Brexit deal – and whether Britain actually needs an extension or in which Could be able to insist All legislation before 31st October.

The problem is that MEPs can add changes after entering this next phase. Opposition legislators are already trying to find ways to ruin legislation, which will definitely require more time for the transition, urging the EU to postpone Brexit. Or MEPs could change it so that Johnson does not want the legislation to be passed in this form, so he'll scrapp it altogether.

MEPs chew on two options: a change that seeks to keep Britain within the EU Customs Union and another that would require a second referendum before a Brexit deal can be approved.

Johnson would by no means advocate a change that binds the UK into the EU Customs Union, which avoids tariffs and charges between EU countries and has block trafficking as a unit with the rest of the world. A customs union would prevent Great Britain from complying with its desired independent trade agreements so Brexitters like Johnson would not tolerate this – meaning that he is unlikely to continue with domestic legislation.

A Second Change to the Referendum May Endorse Johnson's deal depends on a national vote, which Johnson definitely does not want.

Johnson has no majority in parliament, which is why MEPs continue to block his agenda. However, this does not mean that support for a customs union (the EU should do so) or a second referendum is not enough – not even for MPs who are aware of Johnson's Brexit deal.

Already in April, during the vote, during which MEPs decided not to support a second referendum, agreement to remain in the Customs Union was almost reached, 273-276. Whether it could prevail this week is an open question, but if that were the case, Johnson's Brexit plans would go awry. Labor is trying to gain support, especially for the Customs Union, but it will probably need the support of Conservative MPs who were expelled from the party last month to overtly challenge Johnson. And that will not be an easy task, because many do not want Brexit without agreements, but they have their limits when it comes to how closely they work with the Labor Party.

So this week will be another showdown between the Prime Minister and Parliament. There's Johnson, who is desperately trying to bring together support for his Brexit deal and laws to get the UK and EU divorced by the end of the month. And then there's the parliament that's trapped in the middle, with some willing to support Johnson's deal.

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