Astronomers have used two different methods in the past to understand the universe. Telescopes have traditionally been used to observe galaxies, while scientists recently attempted to simulate them on large computers. Now, a theoretical astrophysicist has revealed the first results of a "third way," a novel method that provides new insights into galaxy formation and the role of dark matter.
Professor Peter Behroozi of the University of Arizona leads a team that uses NASA's Pleiades supercomputer to generate millions of universe simulations, each following a different theory of galaxy formation.
He told Express.co.uk: "Telescopes can see galaxies in exquisite detail, but they're just tiny snapshots of their history. [1
"Simulators There are still problems in entering all of the physics they knew into very large computers, since even computers for the next few hundred years will not be enough to simulate a galaxy down to its own individual composition nents.
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Instruments such as NASA's Hubble Space Telescope can see both galaxies as they were in front of billions of dollars Years ago and nearby galaxies to get exquisite pictures, as they look today.
The scientist uses the metaphor to have images of people at different times in the history of their lives.
The problem faced by scientists is how galaxies are assembled to grow over time.
He said, "We're guessing into a computer, how fast galaxies are growing over time and how many fusions they have, and we're creating a whole universe of galaxies, starting with the very first moments immediately after the Big Bang to the present day ,
"And then we still do it in the computer as if we were astronomers, and we observe this universe just as the humans here on Earth did.
"And we ask: Do the observations in the computer resemble the observations of the real universe, or do they differ in any way?
"Among the things we look at, for example, is how many galaxies we see at different points in the history of the universe?
" How tall are they How grouped are they?
"And when we ask ourselves if the universe we created on the computer is similar to the real universe?", We can get an idea of how close we are to the real answer.
So it's almost as if you were saying that you're getting warmer or cooler as far as the proximity to the real universe is concerned.
The Arizona University team's simulations have already produced some "surprising" results. This shows how efficient star formation could have been in the early Universe.
In context, most stars in the Universe are in galaxies that are no longer stars.
Professor Behroozi said: "That was a mystery for a very long time, because when we observe these galaxies that are no longer stars, we find that much material and much fuel is available to form stars, but the Galaxies do not consume this fuel to form new stars.
"What we found with the universe machine i As the most common explanation that it is difficult for the fuel to cool and condense in regions small enough to form stars, we found that to be very low probability, since there is another prediction of how galaxies grow as what the result of our measurements. "
The NASA universe machine – the size of the entire floor of the building – consumed around 5 million CPU hours, which means a laptop would take 5 million hours to complete.  To convert that into something familiar like years would be about half a millennium.
The resulting incredible simulations, as seen in the video above, are only the beginning, explained Professor Behroozi.
He said, "What we've done with galaxies so far, we want you to eventually include every part of the universe.
"In other words, to make a complete movie of the entire universe with galaxies, black holes and supernova explosions, with everything we can observe in the real universe to expand this virtual universe and to really understand what each one does Caused piece that we see. "