قالب وردپرس درنا توس
Home / Science / The physicists have just created the most detailed simulation of the universe in history

The physicists have just created the most detailed simulation of the universe in history



The formation of galaxies is a complex dance between matter and energy that takes place on a scale of cosmic proportions and over billions of years. How the variety of structured and dynamic galaxies we see today emerged from the fiery chaos of the Big Bang remains one of the most difficult unresolved mysteries of cosmology. In search of answers An international team of scientists has created the most detailed large scale model of the universe, a simulation they call TNG50. Its virtual universe, which is around 230 million light-years wide, contains tens of thousands of developing galaxies with levels of detail previously seen only in single galaxy models. Over a period of 13.8 billion years, the simulation tracked more than 20 billion particles representing dark matter, gases, stars, and supermassive black holes.

The unprecedented resolution and scale allowed the researchers to gain important insights into the past of our own universe and to reveal how various strangely shaped galaxies transformed and how stellar explosions and black holes triggered this galactic evolution. Their findings are published in two articles published in the December 201

9 issue of the journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society .

Related: From the Big Bang to the Present: snapshots of our universe through time

TNG50 is the latest simulation of the IllustrisTNG project the goal is creating a complete picture of how our Universe has evolved since the Big Bang, creating a large-scale universe without sacrificing the fine details of individual galaxies.

"These simulations are huge datasets in which we can learn by studying and understanding a ton of the formation and evolution of galaxies in them," said Paul Torrey, Associate Professor of Physics at the University of Florida and co-author of the study , "The fundamental novelty of TNG50 is that you achieve a sufficiently high mass and spatial resolution within the galaxies that gives you a clear picture of what the inner structure of the systems looks like as they form and evolve."

The attention to detail of the model comes at a cost. The simulation required 16,000 processor cores from the supercomputer Hazel Hen in Stuttgart, which ran continuously for more than a year. The same calculation would take 15,000 years to calculate a single processor system. Although it is one of the most computationally intensive astrophysical simulations in history, researchers believe their investment has paid off.

"Numerical experiments of this kind are particularly successful when you get more out of it than in it," said Dylan Nelson, a postdoctoral fellow at the Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics in Munich and co-author of the study . . "In our simulation, we see phenomena that are not explicitly programmed into the simulation code, and these phenomena arise naturally from the complex interaction of the fundamental physical components of our model universe."

  The violent simulated birth of a galaxy cluster in which dark matter structures (in white) merge, while supermassive black holes and supernovae dissipate cosmic gas (gas movement is shown in red).

The Forcible Simulated Birth of a Cluster of Galaxies in which Dark Matter Structures (in White) While supermassive black holes and supernovae discard the cosmic gas, they fuse together (gas movement is shown in red).

(Credit: TNG Collaboration) Billions of years after the Big Bang. TNG50 allowed researchers to see first-hand how galaxies might have arisen from the turbulent gas clouds that existed shortly after the creation of the universe. They discovered that the disk-shaped galaxies that occur in our cosmic neighborhoods have naturally originated in their simulation, producing internal structures such as spiral arms, bulges, and beams emanating from their central supermassive Black Holes . Comparing their computer-generated universe with real observations, they found that their galaxy population was qualitatively consistent with reality.

Related: The 15 Strangest Galaxies in our Universe

As their galaxies flattened further into ordered rotating disks, another phenomenon occurred. Supernova Explosions and supermassive black holes in the heart of each galaxy created fast gas outflows. These outflows were transformed into fountains of gas that rose thousands of light-years across a galaxy. The tug of gravity eventually returned much of this gas to the disk of the galaxy, distributing it to the outer edge and creating a feedback loop of gas leakage and inflow. In addition to recycling the ingredients for the formation of new stars, it has also been shown that the outflows alter the structure of their galaxy. The recycled gases accelerated the transformation of galaxies into thin rotating disks.

Despite these first results, the team is still a long way from dissecting its model. They also plan to make all simulation data publicly available to astronomers around the world to explore their virtual universe.

"After completing these simulations, we have a long way to go," said Torrey. "A whole team of researchers is working to better understand the detailed properties of the formed galaxies and the emerging trends in these data."

Originally published on Live Science ]

  All About Space Holiday 2019

(Photo credit: All About Space)


Source link