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The potential harbingers of new physics are LHC data



Will anomalies observed in the decay of beauty mesas disappear with the new data, as exotic lands have disappeared from maps of cartographers? The latest analysis, which takes into account far-reaching interactions, proves that the anomalies are no less but more visible. Credit: IFJ PAN

Researchers have recently identified several anomalies in the decay of beauty mesquites in the data from the LHCb experiment at the Large Hadron Collider. Is that more than just statistical fluctuations? The latest analysis, which takes into account the so-called remote effect on particle decay, increases the likelihood that the anomalies are not a mistake in the measurement techniques.

As scientists seeking direct traces of new physics attempt to eliminate all possible new signals in particle collisions and expose the gap predicted by the Standard Model, others viewing other phenomena see anomalous signals in the ocean of unresolved data

The Standard Model is a set of theoretical tools developed in the 1

970s to describe phenomena that occur on the scale of atomic nuclei and elementary particles. It works very well, but can not answer important questions. Why do elementary particles have special masses? Why do you create families? Why does matter dominate so clearly against antimatter? What does dark matter consist of? There is a well-founded belief among physicists that the standard model only describes a fragment of reality and needs to be expanded.

"In the LHC, there has long been an intense hunt for anything that can not be explained by current physics. Currently, the search for new particles or phenomena is fruitless directly, but several anomalies have been found in data, the decays of beauty muesons, and they are becoming more interesting by the day because we process more data and the more effects we take into account in their description, the more they are visible, "explains Dr. Marcin Chrzaszcz (IFJ PAN, University of Zurich), co-author of the most recent publication in the journal European Physical Journal C . The other three authors are Christoph Bobeth of the Technical University of Munich, Danny van Dyk of the University of Zurich (UZ) and Javier Virto of the PM and the Center for Theoretical Physics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, USA [19659005] Mesons, particles off Quark-antiquark pairs, come in many variants. The B (beauty) mesons contain a down-quark, one of the common components of protons and neutrons in nature, and an anti-quark of beauty. Mesons are unstable systems and decay rapidly on paths called decay channels. One of these anomalies was observed in the decay channel from meson B to another meson (K *, this meson contains a weird quark instead of a beauty quark) and a muon-antimony pair (muons are elementary particles with electron-only properties) (19659008) "In In previous calculations it was assumed that the disintegration of the meson would no longer interact with its products, and in our latest calculations we also included long-range effects, so-called charm loops. … 1 / index.html With a certain probability, the decay products interact with each other, for example, exchange of gluons, the particles responsible for strong interactions, binding of quarks in protons and neutrons, "says dr. van Dyk (UZ)

Measurements in physics are usually described by the value of sigma standard deviation. An effect that deviates from predictions by more than three standard deviations (3 sigma) is treated as an observation. A discovery is said to have been made if the accuracy increases above 5 sigma (which means a probability of less than one in 3.5 million that random fluctuations give the observed result). Analyzes of the decays of B mesons to K * mesons and a muon-antimony pair showed stress with the standard model prediction of 3.4 sigma (in other decay channels, anomalies of similar nature were observed). However, the inclusion of long-haul effects in the theoretical description increased this value to 6.1 sigma. The researchers hope that their proposed mathematical methods, which are applied to similar decay channels, will also significantly increase the accuracy of the estimates.

"The anomalies uncovered do not disappear in the subsequent analyzes." Now the theoretical description of these processes is done all depends only on the statistical precision, which is determined by the number of decays to be analyzed. We will probably have a sufficient amount within of two or three years to confirm the existence of an anomaly with a credibility that entitles us to talk about a discovery, "Dr. Chrzaszcz.

The origin of the observed anomalies is unknown. Many physicists suggest that an unknown elementary particle outside the standard model could be responsible for its existence. A good candidate, for example, would be the Z-boson proposed by theoreticians. Direct examination of this hypothesis, however, would require further experiments to be performed on an accelerator that is more powerful than the modern LHC configuration.


Further information:
"New physics" escapes us charmingly

Further information:
Christoph Bobeth et al., Remote Effects in B → K * 1 from Analytics The European Physical Journal C (2018). DOI: 10.1140 / epjc / s10052-018-5918-6

Provided by:
Polish Academy of Sciences


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